DHL Worldwide Network S.A./N.V. History
Telephone: (2) 713-4000
Fax: (2) 713-5000
Sales: EUR 22.32 billion ($28.12 billion) (2003)
NAIC: 492110 Couriers; 488510 Freight Transportation Arrangement; 541614 Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services
Our task as a global logistics provider is to network the world. Our aim is to provide excellent service quality to our customers at attractive prices, in the most environment-friendly way possible, embracing our social responsibilities.
- Adrian Dalsey, Larry Hillblom, and Robert Lynn form DHL, which quickly develops into an express delivery service between California and Hawaii.
1970s:Service to and from Far Eastern markets begins.
- With aid from Po Chung, DHL Worldwide Express forms DHL International Ltd., based in Brussels, Belgium, as international arm; DHL Airways, Inc., California-based, is the domestic counterpart.
- DHL begins offering expanded express service from point to point within the United States.
- To raise fresh capital, DHL International sells small stakes in itself to Japan Airlines, Lufthansa, and Nissho Iwai; DHL Worldwide enters the freight transport business.
- JAL and Lufthansa increase their stakes in DHL International to 25 percent, Nissho Iwai, to 7.5 percent.
- Deutsche Post AG purchases a 25 percent stake in DHL International.
- Deutsche Post increases its stake in DHL International to 51 percent; through a restructuring, DHL International now has full ownership of DHL Worldwide Express Inc. and a 25 percent stake in DHL Airways.
- Deutsche Post takes full ownership of DHL International.
- Danzas and Deutsche Post Euro Express are merged into DHL, and DHL becomes the single, global brand for all express delivery and logistics operations within the Deutsche Post group; DHL divests its remaining stake in DHL Airways and acquires Airborne, Inc.
DHL Worldwide Network S.A./N.V., wholly owned by Deutsche Post AG (the German post office) since December 2002, is the world's leading cross-border express delivery service. Its global network encompasses over 4,000 offices and more than 120,000 destinations in more than 220 countries. DHL handles in excess of one billion shipments per year using more than 450 hubs, warehouses, and terminals and 75,000 vehicles. Within the United States, where the company began as an air-courier service from California to Hawaii, DHL has gained the number three position in express delivery, trailing only FedEx Corporation and United Parcel Service, Inc., since acquiring Airborne, Inc. in August 2003. The Airborne deal also provided DHL with a base for expanding its U.S. ground delivery operations. Under the Deutsche Post umbrella, DHL has additional operations in overland freight, air, and ocean transport, and logistics.
Three Men and a Purpose: 1969-79
DHL was founded in 1969 by three young shipping executives, Adrian Dalsey, Larry Hillblom, and Robert Lynn, who were casting about for a way to increase turnaround speed for ships at ports. They reasoned that if the shipping documents could be flown from port to port, they could be examined and processed before the ships arrived, and that speeding up the process would decrease port costs for shippers. With this in mind, the trio combined the first letters of their last names to form the acronym DHL, thus beginning an air-courier company that revolutionized the delivery industry.
DHL rapidly developed into an express delivery service between California and Hawaii, then quickly expanded to points east. The company's primary customer was the Bank of America, which needed a single company to carry its letters of credit and other documents. DHL branched into the international market in the early 1970s when it began flying routes to the Far East. In addition, while competitor Federal Express was developing its domestic overnight delivery network, DHL focused on further developing its international service.
In 1972 the three original investors recruited Po Chung, a Hong Kong entrepreneur, to help them build a global network. Chung started DHL's sister company, DHL International Ltd., headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Beginning then, DHL Worldwide Express functioned as two separate companies, DHL Airways, Inc. based in Redwood City, California, and DHL International. While each company acted as the exclusive agent for the other, by 1983 DHL International had grown to be five times larger than its domestic counterpart. DHL International's rapid expansion continued throughout the 1970s, adding destinations in Europe in 1974, the Middle East in 1976, Latin America in 1977, and Africa in 1978.
FedEx and UPS Up the Ante: 1980-88
The 1980s would bring the firm increased growth as well as greater competition. During this time DHL continued to expand, by turns cooperating with competitors and warring with them. The company also sought new outlets for service, working out an arrangement with Hilton International Co. in 1980, agreeing to provide daily pickup of documents at 49 Hilton Hotels, arranging for international delivery--its couriers moving the packages through customs--then delivering them locally. It was a win-win situation as Hilton was able to offer its patrons a high-class delivery service and DHL was guaranteed new outlets for its business. The next year, 1981, DHL flew ten million shipments between 268 cities and had approximately $100 million in sales. The following year, Lawrence Roberts, who had founded Telenet Communications Corp. and headed GTE, joined DHL as president.
Although DHL had a strong international presence, business was occasionally made difficult because it was necessary for the company to negotiate with foreign governments. In 1982, for example, the French post office sought to reassert a monopoly dating back to the 15th century, and DHL, possessing 80 percent of the French market, was ordered to halt operations outside Paris. What could have been a potential crisis for the company was, however, favorably resolved.
DHL continued to expand its horizons, though, adding Eastern bloc nations in 1983. Prior to 1983, DHL had not pursued much business in the United States, leaving the field to Federal Express and United Parcel Service (UPS). Despite counting 97 percent of the nation's 500 largest companies among its customers, DHL still held only a minuscule share of the overall domestic market. To bolster its share of the American market, DHL installed two major hubs at airports in Cincinnati and Salt Lake City, and added nine mini-hubs in major cities across the country. The company also bought three Boeing 727s and seven Learjets, as well as new sorting equipment. In addition, in 1983 DHL Worldwide started using helicopters in New York and Houston to expedite documents during rush hour and the following year initiated helicopter service in Los Angeles as well.
Once the hubs had been installed, DHL Airways began offering point-to-point overnight service between 126 American cities. Still, for the year ending in 1983, DHL reached only 2 or 3 percent of the domestic market--yet had more than 5,000 employees with 400 offices in over 90 countries. As in its earliest days, banks accounted for a large portion of its business; other common shipments consisted of computer tapes, spare parts, and shipping papers. That year, DHL estimated it carried 80 percent of the bank material traveling by courier from Europe to the United States. Revenues were approximated at $600 million. In 1984, as former courier-driver Joseph Waechter became president of DHL Airways, DHL provided service to more than 125 countries, and its 500 stations were handling 15 million international and domestic shipments annually.
Yet just as DHL was looking to cut into the business of its domestic competitors, those same companies were aiming to siphon off portions of DHL's international business. In 1985 both Federal Express and UPS entered the international express market. As competition became more intense, DHL increasingly began to cooperate with businesses in similar areas. The company teamed up with Western Union to deliver documents generated on Western Union's EasyLink electronic mails, allowing people to send documents via courier without having to hand-deliver material to the courier's office. The next year, 1986, as DHL International formed its first joint venture in the People's Republic of China, known as DHL Sinotrans, Charles A. Lynch was named chairman and chief executive of DHL Airways, replacing Roberts. Lynch remained with the company just two years and was replaced by Patrick Foley, the former chairman of Hyatt Hotels. Meanwhile, FedEx and UPS were eroding DHL's market share, which fell from 54 percent in 1985 to 50 percent in 1987. An important competitive battleground existed in Japan, however, and while FedEx and UPS gained footholds in that country in the 1980s, by 1988 DHL still controlled 80 percent of the Japanese overseas market.
As the world economy boomed in the 1980s, DHL followed suit, even breaking new ground in the Communist-bloc countries. The company had first cracked the eastern bloc in 1983, when it began delivering packages to Hungary, East Germany, and several other countries. DHL Airways was not slouching either, reporting that between 1986 and 1987 alone, its volume rose 34 percent; in 1987 it was the 318th largest private company in the United States, with 5,000 employees and estimated sales of $375 million. Revenues for the entire DHL network, in 1988, were calculated to be between $1.2 billion and $1.5 billion, helped in part by another joint venture with a Hungarian company to create DHL Budapest Ltd. That year, DHL controlled 91 percent of the packages bound for Eastern Europe from the West and 98 percent of all outbound shipments.
Holding and Increasing Market Share: 1989-93
In 1989 DHL Worldwide was the 84th largest company in the United States with 18,000 employees, more than 50 million shipments, and service to 184 countries. Nevertheless, though DHL's international success was becoming firmly established, the company was not making the headway it had planned in the United States. As of 1989, DHL had only 5 percent of the domestic market. To bolster its name recognition in the United States, the company turned to innovative advertising techniques, including the use of humor. Cartoonist Gary Larson, creator of the wildly popular comic "The Far Side," was employed to draw cartoons for use in DHL advertising, and in 1990 the company introduced a campaign featuring flying DHL vans whizzing past competitors' planes. DHL also took an unusual approach to air delivery. Although the company used its own fleet of planes within Europe and on some major routes, DHL often used scheduled airlines to carry its shipments. Federal Express, in contrast, maintained its own fleet and seldom used other airlines. Rather than purchase its own planes, DHL chose instead to invest its capital in technology and ground-handling equipment, spending some $250 million on those areas in 1990 and 1991 alone.
In 1990, in order to infuse the company with fresh capital and take advantage of the resources of larger airlines, DHL International sold parts of its business to three companies. Japan Airlines Company, Limited (JAL) and the German airline Deutsche Lufthansa AG each purchased 5 percent, while Nissho Iwai K.K., a Japanese trading company, purchased 2.5 percent. Each firm also had the option of buying greater shares. In addition, the three companies also purchased a combined stake of 2.5 percent in the U.S.-based DHL Airways. The sale of these closely held interests brought $500 million in capital into the firm. The same year, despite a 60 percent share of the international overnight delivery market, the company began to expand into new areas of business. To keep up in an increasingly competitive industry, DHL Worldwide entered the freight services industry and began carrying heavier cargo. In the company's 20-year history of carrying small packages--generally under 70 pounds--this was DHL's first major departure from its core business. In 1991 DHL Worldwide had revenues of $2.3 billion, and was the 59th largest private company in the United States, its 21,000 employees handling more than 80 million shipments.
In June 1992, all three of DHL's major shareholders exercised their option to increase their shares in DHL International; JAL and Lufthansa each increased their stake to 25 percent, while Nissho Iwai's holdings grew to 7.5 percent. This was also the year DHL began service to Albania, Estonia, Latvia, and Greenland, and reestablished ties with Kuwait. In addition, in an unusual move DHL signed an agreement to share transatlantic and European aircraft operations with one of its competitors, Emery Worldwide. The economic recession and an overcrowded North Atlantic airway were cited as the reasons behind these cooperative measures, which would allow greater operating efficiency and expanded service. The arrangement represented the first of several alliances between integrated carriers, due to increasing pressure from other competitors, including Airborne Express and TNT Limited. In 1993 as revenues hit $3 billion, DHL commenced a four-year $1.25 billion capital spending program to step up its technological capabilities, automation, and communications.
Mid-1990s Growth Initiatives
By 1994, DHL Worldwide's 25-year anniversary, the company controlled 52 percent of the Asian express shipment marketplace, with FedEx and UPS garnering a 24 percent slice each. The next year, DHL poured over $700 million into expansion of its Pacific Rim operations. DHL was not only shoring up facilities in Hong Kong and Australia, but also venturing into 16 new cities in China, India, and Vietnam. A new $60 million hub at Manila's Ninoy Aquino International Airport was scheduled to open in late 1995, with additional facilities slated for Bangkok, Tokyo, Auckland, and Sydney. In the midst of its ambitious expansion, DHL was rocked by the news of founder and majority shareholder Larry Lee Hillblom's death. Known as an avid though reckless pilot (he had survived a previous crash and had his pilot's license suspended), Hillblom, who had withdrawn from DHL's daily operations in 1980, was killed in a seaplane accident near Saipan where he lived.
The management at DHL was soon embroiled in an ugly controversy after Hillblom's 1982 will was released, as a spate of paternity claims and lawsuits were filed. Lurid details of Hillblom's penchant for young island girls reached the press, including an in-depth exposé in the generally staid Wall Street Journal. Since Hillblom had retained a mighty 60 percent of DHL Airways and 23 percent of DHL International (valued conservatively at the time at around $300 million), the company's officers scrambled to exercise an option to repurchase his shares. Yet financing and a host of complications held up the buyback and soon the entire estate was a miasma of lawsuits, bad judgment calls, and island politics.
Yet 1995 was still a good year for DHL Worldwide, as the company debuted its web site (www.dhl.com) and experienced an overall 23 percent growth in revenue to $3.8 billion, with an incredible 40 percent surge in volume in its Middle East operations. In response to the encouraging numbers, DHL broke ground on a new $4 million state-of-the-art express facility at the Dubai International Airport in the United Arab Emirates in 1996. The new 42,000-square-foot hub was to complement DHL's existing facilities in Bahrain. Over on the Asian continent, DHL broke with its longstanding tradition of leasing planes to buy its own cargo fleet. Though DHL International's previous strategy of leasing out cargo space had proved both successful and prudent, Chairman and CEO Foley told the San Francisco Business Times the company needed to control its own destiny, and having its own fleet would help alleviate the space limitations and scheduling snafus of commercial flights.
In 1996 DHL was looking to the future again by announcing plans for a $100 million hub in the Midwest to carry the company through the next two decades. While its Cincinnati "superhub" handled around 45 incoming flights every night, and sorted over 135,000 pieces at a rate of 60,000 per hour--DHL believed its growth would soon outpace the facility. The same was true for the San Francisco area, where Silicon Valley shipments represented 40 percent of DHL Airways' business in the Bay Area. Internationally, DHL was still growing at the speed of sound with expansion in the former Soviet Union to 37 branches, a new facility at Ferihegy Airport in Budapest, and the acquisition of Shigur Express in Israel. Though DHL had worked with Shigur for years, the $3.5 million purchase gave DHL a firmer presence in the country's emerging market. By 1998, DHL served 227 countries with 2,381 stations in cities from Paris and Prague to Bombay and Bangkok with over 53,200 employees. Stateside, however, DHL Airways still represented less than 2 percent of the market, though the California-based company got a boost from the August 1997 Teamsters' strike against UPS.
Late 1990s and Early 2000s: Gradual Beginning of the Deutsche Post Era
A new era began for DHL in 1998 when Deutsche Post AG, the German postal service, then still wholly government owned, bought a 25 percent stake in DHL International--essentially buying the interest formerly held by Hillblom. For DHL, the deal provided it with additional funds for expansion as well as greater access to the German market through Deutsche Post's 15,000 branches. For its part, Deutsche Post was looking for opportunities to expand beyond its domestic market as the integration of Europe continued apace. Toward this same end, Deutsche Post Euro Express was set up in 1998 as a ground-based parcel and distribution network for both Germany and Europe.
As its ownership structure evolved, DHL was also continuing to diversify the range of services it offered to customers. Building on its entry into freight transport, DHL began to move into the market for logistics services, aiming to essentially become part of its customers' supply chains. By 1998 the company had set up eight regional logistics centers where subassembly work on personal computers and other products could be carried out, and 54 parts centers that warehoused spare parts for field engineers. Such services enabled manufacturers and suppliers to reduce their inventories while still having quick access to parts and assemblies.
At the same time, Deutsche Post was also moving aggressively into worldwide logistics. During 1999 it acquired Danzas Group, a Swiss logistics company with roots dating back to 1815. Then in 2000 Deutsche Post acquired Air Express International Corporation (AEI) for $1.1 billion. AEI, the largest airfreight forwarder in the United States, with a branch network in 125 countries, was subsequently integrated into Danzas. This made Danzas, now operating in 150 countries, the world's leading airfreight forwarder and one of the top five players in ocean freight. Also in 2000 the privatization of Deutsche Post began with a November initial public offering (IPO) that sold 29 percent of the firm's shares.
During 1999 DHL entered into an alliance with the United States Postal Service through which the two entities began offering two-day-delivery service between 11 U.S. cities and Europe. DHL also unveiled that year a $1.5 billion plan to buy more than 40 new cargo jets and to modernize cargo hubs and other facilities at airports in Germany, Singapore, and Japan. After JAL reduced its stake in DHL from 26 percent to 6 percent, DHL announced in late 1999 plans to sell as much as 23 percent of its equity to the public in an IPO. These plans were shelved during 2000, however, when the company entered into a new agreement with Deutsche Post through which the latter boosted its stake in DHL to 51 percent by the end of 2001. By this time, the DHL Worldwide Express network encompassed 80,000 destinations, linking 635,000 cities in 228 countries.
As this increase in ownership of DHL unfolded--and was fought by rivals FedEx and UPS, fearful of a stronger competitor in the huge U.S. shipping market--DHL altered its corporate structure. It was the Brussels-based DHL International that Deutsche Post took majority control of, and DHL International created a new U.S. holding company that owned a 25 percent voting stake in DHL Airways and had full ownership of DHL Worldwide Express Inc.--the latter having been carved out of DHL Airways and consisting of that entity's ground-based delivery operations in the United States. FedEx and UPS claimed that Deutsche Post, in its convoluted relationship with DHL Airways, was in violation of U.S. federal laws prohibiting foreign control or ownership of more than 25 percent of a U.S. airline. The U.S. Department of Transportation, however, eventually ruled in favor of DHL and Deutsche Post. Furthermore, in mid-2003 DHL International divested its remaining stake in DHL Airways, which was simultaneously renamed Astar Air Cargo Inc.
In July 2002 Deutsche Post acquired Lufthansa's share of DHL International, increasing its stake to more than 75 percent. That same month, a DHL cargo jet collided with a Russian passenger jet, killing 71 people in Germany's worst postwar air disaster. In December of that year, Deutsche Post took full ownership of DHL, buying out the minority interests of JAL and two investment funds. This laid the ground for a comprehensive rebranding and reorganization of Deutsche Post's operations in 2003. That year, Danzas and Deutsche Post Euro Express were merged into DHL, still headquartered in Brussels, and DHL became the single, global brand for all express delivery and logistics operations within the Deutsche Post group. Not only did the new structure offer the possibility for comprehensive cost savings, but DHL Worldwide Network S.A./N.V. emerged as a Deutsche Post subsidiary offering customers "one-stop shopping" for delivery and logistics services.
DHL Worldwide grew even larger in August 2003 when it completed the acquisition of Airborne, Inc. for $1.05 billion. Based in Seattle, Airborne was the third largest express delivery company in the United States. By acquiring Airborne, whose name was eventually phased out in favor of DHL's, DHL augmented its air express operations within the United States but perhaps more importantly gained control of Airborne's nascent ground delivery network and thereby gained ground on its U.S. arch-rivals, FedEx and UPS. DHL now had about 21 percent of the U.S. air delivery market but still only 2 percent of the ground sector. Airborne's airline unit was spun off as the standalone company ABX Air to comply with U.S. airline ownership laws. As the combined U.S. operations of DHL and Airborne were merged, U.S. headquarters were consolidated at DHL's offices in Plantation, Florida. In June 2004 DHL announced that it was stepping up its push into the U.S. market by committing to spend $1.2 billion over a three-year period to build or upgrade shipment-sorting operations and otherwise bolster its delivery network throughout the country. A key component of this expansion was the establishment of a West Coast air and ground hub, and in December 2004 DHL tentatively selected March Air Reserve Base in southern California as the location for this hub. As this buildup continued, DHL was losing hundreds of millions of dollars in North America, and this red ink was expected to flow well into 2005 and even 2006.
In the meantime, DHL was not standing still in its core markets of Asia and Europe. In 2003 the company earmarked $215 million for a five-year push into the rapidly growing express and logistics market of China. That year, DHL purchased a 5 percent stake in Sinotrans, the leading logistics firm in China. In mid-2004 DHL launched China Domestic, the mainland's first domestic express service operated by an international provider. India was another target of expansion, and in November 2004 DHL announced its acquisition of a majority stake in India's largest domestic courier, Blue Dart. This was followed one month later by the formation of a 50-50 joint venture with the express and logistics unit of New Zealand Post. Over in Europe, DHL had been planning to establish an intercontinental freight hub in its headquarters city of Brussels, but the move was scuttled by Belgian government noise-reduction requirements. Instead, DHL began laying the groundwork for a new European hub at Hall Airport in Leipzig, Germany, where operations could begin by 2008.
Principal Subsidiaries: Deutsche Post Euro Express Deutschland GmbH & Co. OHG (Germany); Air Express International USA, Inc.; Securicor Omega Holdings Ltd. (U.K.); Airborne, Inc. (U.S.A.); DHL Worldwide Express Inc. (U.S.A.); Danzas S.A. (France); Danzas ASG Eurocargo AB (Sweden); Danzas GmbH (Germany); DHL International (UK) Ltd.; Danzas S.p.A. (Italy); DHL Danzas Air & Ocean Germany GmbH (Germany); DHL Worldwide Express GmbH (Germany); Van Gend & Loos B.V. (Netherlands); Danzas AG (Switzerland); DHL International S.A. (France); Danzas Limited (U.K.); DANZAS Euronet GmbH (Germany); Danzas Limited (Hong Kong); DHL Japan Inc.
Principal Divisions: DHL Express; DHL Freight; DHL Danzas Air & Ocean; DHL Solutions; DHL Global Mail.
Principal Competitors: FedEx Corporation; United Parcel Service, Inc.; United States Postal Service; TPG N.V.
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- Atkins, Ralph, "German Delivery for DHL: Change Is Forcing Deutsche Post to Act," Financial Times, March 26, 1998, p. 39.
- Batchelor, Charles, "Deutsche Post's Stake Represents Coming of Age," Financial Times, June 18, 1998, p. 2.
- "The Battle of Zaventem," Forbes, April 29, 1991.
- Blackmon, Douglas A., "Transportation: Federal Express, UPS Battle for a Foothold in Asia," Wall Street Journal, January 22, 1997, p. B1.
- Bole, Kristin, "DHL Gets Its Wings: Plans to Buy Own Jets in Asia Marks Change in Strategy," San Francisco Business Times, May 10, 1996, p. 1.
- Boudette, Neal E., "Deutsche Post to Increase Stake in DHL International," Wall Street Journal Europe, September 18, 2000, p. 6.
- Brady, Diane, "Delivery Giants Race to Set Up Hubs for Overnight Service to Asian Cities," Wall Street Journal, August 7, 1997, p. B6.
- Brooks, Rick, "Airborne to Sell Ground Operations," Wall Street Journal, March 25, 2003, p. B4.
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- ------, "DHL Plans to Spend $1.2 Billion in Challenge of FedEx and UPS," Wall Street Journal, June 25, 2004, p. B2.
- ------, "Package Delivery Battle Hinges on DHL Ruling," Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2003, p. B1.
- ------, "U.S. Ruling Delivers Victory to Deutsche Post and DHL," Wall Street Journal Europe, May 14, 2001, p. 7.
- "DHL Expands Its Domestic Operations," H&SM, July 1983.
- "DHL International Stake to Be Bought by Three Concerns," Wall Street Journal, May 30, 1990.
- "DHL International Will Sell 22.5% Stake to Deutsche Post AG," Wall Street Journal, March 27, 1998.
- "DHL Ties Up East Europe Package," Advertising Age, August 29, 1988.
- Ewing, Jack, Dean Foust, and Michael Eidam, "DHL's American Adventure," Business Week, November 29, 2004, pp. 126-27.
- "An International Courier Takes on Federal Express," Business Week, May 9, 1983.
- Johnson, Keith, and Victoria Knight, "DHL Shuns Brussels As Global Hub," Wall Street Journal Europe, October 22, 2004, p. A1.
- Karnitschnig, Matthew, "Deutsche Post Girds for Battle: German Delivery Firm Asks EU to Impose Restrictions on Rivals UPS and FedEx," Wall Street Journal, October 6, 2003, p. A14.
- Karp, Aaron, "Networking America: DHL Gets Down to the Ground Basics in Building a New Infrastructure in the United States," Air Cargo World, October 2004, pp. 10-11.
- "Larson's Humor Flies for DHL," Industry Week, April 3, 1989.
- McKenna, Ed, "Growth Is Costly for DHL," Journal of Commerce, November 15, 2004, p. 36.
- Nelms, Douglas W., "Holding Its Own: A Massive Global Expansion Is Keeping DHL Well Ahead of Growing U.S. Competition," Air Transport World, June 1996, p. 151.
- Orr, Deborah, "Delivering America," Forbes, October 4, 2004, pp. 78-80.
- Ott, James, "Heavy-Weight Expansion Propels DHL Hub Growth," Aviation Week and Space Technology, March 4, 1997, p. 37.
- Power, Stephen, and Rick Brooks, "Air-Cargo Fight Has Big Cast: FedEx and UPS, Backed by Legislators, Say Germans Run DHL," Wall Street Journal, July 18, 2003, p. A4.
- Schwartz, Judith D., "DHL Puts Its Foot to the Floor As FedEx and UPS Pick Up Speed," Adweek's Marketing Week, January 1, 1990.
- Shishkin, Philip, and Rick Brooks, "Deutsche Post to Split Up in Settlement That May Fan Battle over U.S. Market," Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2001, p. A3.
- Solomon, Mark, "DHL, Japan Air, and Lufthansa Seek to Reshape Express Sector," Traffic World, May 21, 1990.
- Tanzer, Andrew, "Warehouses That Fly," Forbes, October 18, 1999, pp. 120-22, 124.
- Tausz, Andrew, "DHL Is Delivering on Courier Challenges," Distribution, September 1997, p. 22.
- Waldman, Peter, "Heir Freight: How the Strange Life of a DHL Founder Left His Estate a Mess," Wall Street Journal, May 15, 1996, p. A1.
- "We Go Anywhere," Financial World, January 25, 1984.
- Wiebner, Mike, "Getting Grounded: For DHL Worldwide Express, the Road to Riches in the American Express Market Runs over the Ground," Air Cargo World, November 2002, pp. 22, 24.
Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.69. St. James Press, 2005.