General Contracting Company Business Plan


BUSINESS PLAN     SMITH CONTRACTORS, INC.


123 Main Street, Suite H
Spokane, Washington 99204


Smith Contractors, Inc. specializes in national tenant improvements, retail market facilities, and commercial properties. Their primary goal of meeting customers' construction needs through quality workmanship and successful relationships with owner management teams is evidenced by their expanding base of repeat clients. This plan was provided by Ameriwest Business Consultants, Inc.


  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • OBJECTIVES & GOALS, AND STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING THEM
  • BUSINESS DESCRIPTION, STATUS, & OUTLOOK
  • MANAGEMENT AND OWNERSHIP
  • MARKET ANALYSIS
  • MARKETING STRATEGIES
  • FINANCIAL PLANS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BUSINESS DESCRIPTION

Smith Contractors, Inc. is a general contracting company founded in February 1990 by a select group of individuals with a high level of construction experience. The firm specializes in national tenant improvements, retail market facilities, and commercial properties. Smith Contractors' primary goal of meeting customers' construction needs through quality work-manship and successful relationships with owner management teams is evidenced by our expanding base of repeat clients. Smith Contractors offers national construction services, preconstruction services, job site and project management, administrative support, and document control. Smith Contractors evaluates projects for constructability, provides cost estimates, helps maintain project scheduling, and works with owners to meet quality and time objectives. Smith Contractors can suggest cost effective means of construction and help select the best subcontractors for each project. Once a project is begun, Smith Contractors maintains full-time superintendents who are responsible for all daily logs, reviewing quality and timeliness of subcontractors, conducting safety meetings and maintaining good communications with the owner. The client list includes many nationally known firms including Ross, Sears, Dockers, Fashion Bar, and Nike. Smith Contractors is licensed or authorized to pull building permits in all 50 states.

CURRENT POSITION AND FUTURE OUTLOOK

The business is in its seventh year of operation. Operations are conducted from facilities located at 123 Main Street in Spokane, Washington. Sales increased nearly fifty percent in 1998 and are expected to do the same in 2000. These healthy increases are expected to continue for another three years and then begin to level off. An area of opportunity in the future will be working on international projects. This will be on a limited basis and will be at the request of existing customers.

MANAGEMENT AND OWNERSHIP

The company is set up as a corporation with John Smith owning 85% of the stock and Bill Brown owning the remaining 15%. A "C" corporation type of entity was chosen for liability protection, tax considerations, growth plans, stock option plans, and the opportunity to raise capital from investors more easily. John Smith serves as President and C.E.O. John has over 18 years of contractor experience and has run the operations of two national firms. Other key employees include Bill Brown, Vice-President and Consultant; Mark Brown, Marketing Manager; and Ralph Brown, Director of Construction. Smith Contractors also employs nine other people in various capacities. When volume picks up, additional part-time or full-time employees will be hired as the workload requires. Smith Contractors will continue to utilize the services from consultants in areas such as planning, budgeting, accounting, general business advising, and law.

UNIQUENESS AND DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SERVICE

Smith Contractors, Inc. will continue to specialize in serving nationally known retailers. It is only one of twenty plus contractors that are trusted to handle projects for retailers on a national scale. The company utilizes the most current technology to enable it to not only provide competitive pricing but also for the monitoring of existing projects. Through the use of a digital camera, Smith Contractors can post pictures of current projects on its website. This allows customers to constantly monitor status of projects. Smith Contractors will continue to secure jobs in the booming West Coast region, but its focus will always be on the national marketplace. It will only occasionally compete with Washington contractors for business.

It is rare in today's business world to find a true market void. That is exactly what Smith Contractors has done. It has combined the latest in technology with an unfilled need and has promised to deliver a high quality new product at a competitive price. Our services have limited competition in Washington and even nationally. We have built an excellent reputation of bringing projects in on time and on budget. We are now considered contractor of first choice by many well known companies.

FUNDS REQUIRED AND USAGE

To continue to fund its growth, Smith Contractors will be seeking $100,000 to $350,000 in additional funding. This may come from either investors or from additional loans. Any additional funds obtained will be for working capital and advertising. By changing the way it pays subcontractors and suppliers and collects payments from customers, the amount of new funds specified above may be reduced dramatically. These changes are already in progress and will be ongoing. In the past, Smith Contractors often funded a major portion of a project until it was completed. From now on, this funding will be kept to a minimum.

Five-Year Income Statement Summary

MOST LIKELY CASE Actual Actual Annualized Projected Projected
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Total Revenue 2,767,519 4,126,409 6,180,872 8,035,134 10,043,917
Cost of Sales 2,231,679 3,186,679 5,111,028 6,644,336 8,305,420
Gross Profit 535,840 939,730 1,069,844 1,390,797 1,738,497
Selling, General, Expense 484,219 817,440 878,206 1,023,211 1,179,191
Operating Income 51,621 122,290 191,638 363,586 559,305
Other Income (Expenses) 25,619 30,797 30,000 30,600 36,000
Income Before Taxes $77,240 $153,087 $221,638 $398,186 $595,305
Income Taxes $885 $52,198 $75,572 $135,769 $202,981
Income After Taxes 76,355 100,889 146,066 262,417 392,324
OPTIMISTIC CASE
Total Revenue 2,767,519 4,126,409 7,417,046 9,642,160 12,052,700
Cost of Sales 2,231,679 3,186,679 6,133,234 7,973,204 9,966,505
Gross Profit 535,840 939,730 1,283,813 1,668,957 2,086,196
Selling, General, Expense 484,219 817,440 1,053,847 1,227,853 1,415,030
Operating Income 51,621 122,290 229,966 441,104 671,166
Other Income (Expenses) 25,619 30,797 36,000 36,720 43,200
Income Before Taxes $77,240 $153,087 265,966 477,824 714,366
Income Taxes $885 $52,198 90,686 162,923 243,577
Income After Taxes 76,355 100,889 175,279 314,901 470,789
PESSIMISTIC CASE Actual Actual Annualized Projected Projected
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Total Revenue 2,767,519 4,126,409 4,944,698 6,428,107 8,035,134
Cost of Sales 2,231,679 3,186,679 4,088,822 5,315,469 6,644,336
Gross Profit 535,840 939,730 855,875 1,112,638 1,390,797
Selling, General, Expense 484,219 817,440 702,565 818,569 943,353
Operating Income 51,621 122,290 153,310 294,069 447,444
Other Income (Expenses) 25,619 30,797 24,000 24,480 28,800
Income Before Taxes $77,240 $153,087 177,310 318,549 476,244
Income Taxes $885 $52,198 60,457 108,615 162,385
Income After Taxes 76,355 100,889 116,853 209,934 313,860

OBJECTIVES & GOALS, AND STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING THEM

  1. To provide a high quality service so that customers will perceive great value.
  2. To obtain additional funding to fuel continued expansion.
  3. Our goal is to become one of the premier nationally known retail contractors in the country within three years.
  4. Smith Contractors plans to closely monitor changing technology to be certain that the company is using the latest and most cost effective equipment and that it keeps up with current trends in the marketplace.
  5. To provide Smith Contractors with at least $700,000 in retained earning over the next five years.
  6. Upon request from an existing customer we will become active in the international construction scene.

In addition to the above goals, we will survey our customers and make changes in our programs and add services to meet their changing ideas in the marketplace.

STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING GOALS

To achieve the above goals, we will concentrate on providing outstanding quality and continue to bring projects in on time and on budget. Obtaining repeat business is a key to continued success for any contractor serving national retailers. Smith Contractors currently serves nine customers. By the end of 2000 this is expected to increase to twenty. As the Washington economy continues to see rapid growth, Smith Contractors will take advantage of an even greater share of this marketplace than it has in the past. It will be able to capitalize on the reputation it has built on a national level for producing quality projects which come in on time and on budget.

Our major goals include maximizing sales and building our client/customer base with a close eye on profitability.

BUSINESS DESCRIPTION, STATUS, & OUTLOOK

Smith Contractors, Inc. will continue on its current path of growth. Its main office is fully staffed and equipped and able to handle nearly double the amount of sales with little additional expenses. Its first full year of business saw Smith Contractors equal industry averages. Over the next several years, if it meets the modest growth goals outlined in this plan, it will do much better than peer operations. According to the recent newsletter of Store Fixture Manufacturing, monthly retail construction spending has grown from $42 billion to $51 billion during the past year.

The biggest problem this venture will face will be creating customer awareness of our services and funding the growth. We will use a combination of advertising techniques and word of mouth to increase this awareness. Once a general awareness is present, the company has a virtually unlimited growth potential

Until May 1, 1999, subcontractors were paid 90% of their contract at completion of the project prior to or close to Smith Contractors, Inc. receiving its 50% draw minus retainage and prior to billing application two to the owner for 100% minus 10% retainage. The second draw to subcontractors was their 10% retainage plus approved change orders and was paid prior to Smith Contractors receiving 100% minus 10% retainage. This resulted in Smith Contractors financing the majority of its jobs. Effective May 1, 1997, Smith Contractors will pay subcontractors only after it has received 100% minus 10% retainage. The subcontractors then will receive 100% of their contracts minus 10% retainage. Smith Contractors is able to institute these new procedures due to different terms negotiated on new contracts with owners and subcontractors and because of its position and reputation in the industry.

With the implementation of the new billing and payment terms, Smith Contractors has changed dramatically its cash flow position from one of financing the majority of each project's expenses to financing only the 10% retainage and a much smaller percentage of change orders. Smith Contractors will only pay the subcontractors when the owner has paid Smith Contractors up to the final 10% retainage.

The future holds the promise for almost unlimited growth and income as the business matures and considers other markets and products. Complementary products such as international jobs will be considered in the future in response to customer requests.

MANAGEMENT AND OWNERSHIP

John Smith is the majority stockholder and serves as President and C.E.O. of Smith Contractors. He has 30 years' experience in the construction industry and has "hands-on, ground-up" knowledge of all facets of the construction business. He received a degree in home building construction from San Matino College. He completed over 96 additional hours in construction technology at the University of Washington. He has played a key role and functioned in a management capacity in most impact areas of the industry. His supervisory positions in the administrative, operational, technological, and fiscal areas of this discipline have afforded him the skills, experience, and talents necessary to lead Smith Contractors into the new century. John Smith is heavily involved in sales, public relations, banking, personnel, and planning.

Bill Brown is the minority stockholder and serves as Vice President and Consultant to Smith Contractors. He received a M.S. degree in civil engineering from the University of Florida in 1960. He is a licensed civil and structural engineer. He is a senior project manager for the El Martino Texas office. He has a total of more than 40 years of engineering experience. His investment in money and time in Smith Contractors has been critical to its success.

Ralph Brown serves as Director of Construction. He received a B.A. degree from Indiana University in 1990. He now has over ten years of experience in commercial tenant improvement project management in national and local markets. He has handled up to 17 projects at one time. Project experience includes military and government facilities, airports, hospitals, universities, offices, banks, and retail stores. He has managed a project that received a contractor AIA award for "Excellence in Construction." All of his projects have been completed on or ahead of schedule. He has hands-on experience in preparing bids, determination of subcontractor qualifications, and preparation of critical path schedules. He writes and awards all contracts. He is responsible for scheduling of all subcontractors and materials and conducts pre-construction meetings. He supervises all project progress meetings, training superintendents, and is responsible for the certification of all change orders. Ralph is involved in sales, public relations, personnel, operations, planning, purchasing, equipment, and labor.

Mark Brown has been recently hired as the Marketing Manager. He received a M.S. degree from Illinois Tech College, a B.B.A. and B.A. from the University of Oregon. He has over seven years of experience in a variety of high level management positions, working for both private industry and different levels of the United States government. Mark is involved in sales, public relations, advertising, marketing, and planning.

The business is set up as a "C" corporation. This form of legal entity was chosen primarily for liability reasons and makes it easier to secure investors. The company employs nine other highly trained employees in office management and project administration. As the business grows additional part-time or full-time employees may be added to handle the increased workload.

Smith Contractors maintains membership in the Better Business Bureau and the Association of Building Contractors.

MARKET ANALYSIS

MARKET OVERVIEW, SIZE, AND SEGMENTS

Currently, the national market distribution is shared by about fifty plus participants. They are located all over the country. This market segment has been relatively stable over the past five years.

The Washington economy is in the midst of a particularly strong growth period. Many new jobs are being added to the local community. Ever increasing numbers of Californians are coming to this area. All of these factors are cause for a much greater need for retail construction services. All of this activity can only help our kind of business.

Listed below are just some of the reasons that the Washington and the Washington area, in particular, is growing and why it is a good time for a business such as ours.

  • The local economy is booming and virtually busting at the seams.• Washington has become a magnet for insurance organizations. More than 65 nationally based insurance organizations are headquartered here. The largest, Allstate, has over 1,200 employees and an operating budget of over $85 million.
  • Washington has a new airport and a nearby free trade enterprise zone that should grow and attract even more new businesses.
  • The Seattle airport adds an economic boost to the entire state.
  • Every week, we see articles in the newspapers of Oregon residents and companies relocating here.
  • The world-renowned Four Seasons Hotel is building a new convention facility.
  • Sprint and Microsoft are undergoing large increases in their operations here that should add many hundreds of employees.
  • Many experts predict King County to become the second fastest growing county in the state between now and the year 2000.
  • The local economy is now more diversified than it was when troubles occurred in the local economy in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

The estimated population of King County in 1998 was 685,000 people. The number of households was 275,000. Currently, this market is growing at an annual rate of 3-5%. Projections see this trend continuing through the next decade.

The state of Washington has nearly five million people and is expanding at about 3% per year.

From the above figures it can readily be seen that the potential local market for our services is huge. We feel with our pricing and value we will become one of the premier retail construction companies in the country.

CUSTOMER PROFILE

Our customers are usually large nationally known firms in a variety of fields. Projects that Smith Contractors, Inc. and/or their personnel have managed over the past few years include:

  • Roberts, Inc.
  • Hodge Foundation
  • J. W. Cook Landscaping
  • Pugh Engineering
  • Braunt Products Ltd.

COMPETITION

The following table summarizes some of the national firms we consider competition:

Competitor Name Estimated Sales Strengths Weaknesses
O'Malley $250,380,500 Very large, multiple offices Majority of business is local, not national
Brown $20,000,000 Provides quality competitive work No major weaknesses noted
Miller $28,118,068 Multiple client base Not popular with subcontractors
Business Construction Services Unknown Very large, oldest national firm Seem too large to properly monitor projects
Westwood $16,761,895 They have multiple offices Currently bidding way under market cost which will ultimately hurt them with poorly managed clients
The national marketplace is currently shared by about 50 plus major firms.

RISK ANALYSIS—STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES

We feel we have strengths in administration, overall management, human resources, quality of service, operations, servicing, quality of service, company policies, service features, reliability, desirability, and pricing. We appear to be about average in finance/planning, sales force, and overhead. Our minor weaknesses are in the areas of marketing and advertising and finding lenders who will finance receivables. We have just begun to look at this area. We have recently hired a marketing manager to provide expertise and direction. We have obtained the services of a highly qualified business consultant to aid in financial projections, help put together a business plan, and develop strategies to fund future growth. Our staff is highly trained, well motivated and provided with an excellent benefit package. Client issues are given the highest priority. The business is highly competitive and has excellent facilities which are fully equipped. The business is ready for significant increases in sales with little additional need for staff or equipment.

We have low risk exposure in the areas of technology, inflation/interest rates, regulatory environment, local and national economies, management ability, dependence on other companies, location, facilities, and suppliers.

We perceive medium risk exposure in the competitive position, vulnerability to substitutes, financial performance, finance, and planning. We have or will soon retain the services of a full-time marketing manager, a full-time controller, and a business consultant to help in various areas such as marketing, financial controls, and general overall business operation advice. We do not perceive any high risks associated with our company.

Since we are still a relatively new business we will continue to obtain help when needed in areas necessary to complement our abilities.

MARKETING STRATEGIES

PRICING AND VALUE

Pricing is based upon subcontractors price plus overhead and profit. Prices are driven by competition. Current competition dictates a percent of mark-up. We currently win about one-third of the projects we bid on. We come in second on nearly seventy percent of the rest of the jobs we bid on.

At this point there is a certain amount of price inelasticity in this service. Customers are very sensitive to pricing changes. With the current level of competition we must be careful not to price ourselves out of the market. On the other hand, if we offer additional services we can open up other opportunities to increase income. Pricing will be reviewed on a monthly basis.

SELLING TACTICS

Our company's marketing strategy will incorporate plans to promote our line of services through several different channels and on different levels of use. We make use of referrals, cold calls, visits to customers and advertising. We plan to utilize our website as a selling tool.

Advertising tools we will utilize include brochures, catalogs, targeted advertisements, lead generation, lead referral and follow-up systems, information gathering, and dissemination. To better reach the local market we will meet with building owners and property managers to present our track record of success. In addition, we will advertise in Washington and Oregon newspapers, local trade journals, and business newspapers that target business clientele. We will join the local association for property managers.

Nationally, we will advertise by way of our brochure that will be sent to potential clients. We will advertise through the Internet. If any interest is shown, we will invite them to tour our facilities and meet our professional staff.

ADVERTISING, PROMOTION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICES

We recognize that the key to success at this time requires extensive promotion. Advertising goals include all of the following:

  • Position the company to become one of the premier retail contractors in the country.
  • Increase general awareness of our company both locally and nationally.
  • Increase general awareness of our company and its outstanding track record.
  • Maximize efficiency by continually monitoring media effectiveness.
  • Maintain an ad in the Yellow Pages in Spokane and Seattle and consider an ad in the Internet Yellow Pages.
  • Continually update our brochure to explain our service and company.
  • Consider using a direct mail approach.
  • Use a mix of media to saturate the marketplace.

PUBLIC RELATIONS

We will develop a public relations policy that will help increase awareness of our company and product. To achieve these goals we will consider some or all of the following:

Develop a press release and a company backgrounder as a public relations tool.

Develop a telephone script to handle customer and advertiser contacts.

Develop a survey to be completed by customers to help determine the following:

  1. How did they hear about us?
  2. What influenced them to use our service?
  3. How well did our service satisfy their needs?
  4. How efficient was our service?
  5. Did they have any problems getting through to us?
  6. Did they shop competitors before selecting us?
  7. How did they initially perceive our company and product?
  8. Where are most of our customers located?
  9. Do they have suggestions for improving our service or our approach to advertising?
  10. What additional services would they like us to offer?11.Would they recommend us to others?

SMITH CONTRACTORS, INC.

Throughout this business plan we have taken a very conservative approach to developing our financial projections.

ASSUMPTIONS, DEFINITIONS, AND NOTES

The following assumptions were used in preparing the projections in this business plan:

  • Inflation rates to remain stable at 3-5%.
  • Assume growth rates of 30% and 25% for 1998 and 1999 respectively.
  • Robust national and local economies.
  • Interest rates to remain flat and basically unchanged.
  • Payroll taxes and benefits will equal 26.43% of total payroll expenses.
  • Assumes outstanding debt of $800,000 will remain in place.
  • Office supplies/postage expenses are set at .00327 of monthly income.
  • Contingency and miscellaneous expenses are set at 5% of total income.
  • Telephone and utilities expense are set at .0063285 of total sales.
  • Assumes growth in sales of 30% and 25% for 1998 and 1999 respectively.
  • Assumes cost of sales/subcontractors will remain at 82.69% of sales.
  • In 1998 and 1999 the same seasonality will be maintained as was shown for 1997.
  • The following expenses will increase by 5% in 1998 and 1999:
    —Salaries, Officer
    —Salaries-Office
    —Blueprint Supplies
    —Gas and Oil
    —Licenses
    —Rent
  • Office maintenance and improvements will be .00083 of sales for 1997-1999.
  • Computer expenses will be .00077 of sales.
  • Vehicle expenses will be .002005 of sales.
  • Vehicle leases will be .0034402 of sales.
  • Entertainment will be maintained at .0009163 of sales.
  • Freight will be .005096 of sales for 1997-1999.
  • Travel will be .0040424 of sales.
  • Employee business expenses will be .0026239.
  • Insurance will be .0129505 of sales.
  • Advertising/Public Relations will be .0032013 of sales for 1997-1999.
  • Professional services will be .0122461.
  • Equipment leases will be .0073654 of sales.
  • Subscriptions and memberships will be .0001402 of sales.
  • Income taxes for 1997-1999 will be .3409693 of gross income.

FINANCIAL PLANS

Five-Year Financial Summary —Financial Inputs & Summary

First Year of Start-Up 1996
Corporation Type (C or S)? C "C" Corporation format selected; Income taxes will be computed.
Start-Up
Operating Data 1996 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Days sales in accounts receivable 25 25 27 30 35
Days materials cost in inventory 5 5 5 5 5
Days finished good in inventory 5 5 5 5 5
Days materials cost in payables 30 34 38 40 42
Days payroll expense accrued 10 10 10 10 10
Days operating expense accrued 15 15 20 20 20
Expense Data
Direct labor as % of sales 36.00% 36.08% 35.58% 35.36% 34.78%
Other payroll as % of sales 10.99% 9.44% 8.96% 8.70% 8.24%
Payroll taxes as % of sales 3.55% 3.17% 3.05% 2.98% 2.87%
Insurance as % of sales 4.83% 4.39% 4.30% 4.27% 4.16%
Legal/accounting as % of sales 0.289% 0.259% 0.255% 0.235% 0.234%
Other overhead as % of sales 7.19% 7.06% 7.05% 6.90% 6.96%
Expense Data
Direct labor $747,000 $919,380 $1,006,368 $1,084,622 $1,158,174
Other payroll $228,000 $240,600 $253,530 $266,807 $274,447
Payroll taxes $73,600 $80,730 $86,263 $91,542 $95,529
Insurance $100,320 $111,876 $121,515 $130,850 $130,635
Legal/accounting $6,000 $6,600 $7,200 $7,200 $7,800
Other overhead $149,243 $179,795 $199,416 $211,656 $231,732
Other Operating Expenses $557,163 $619,601 $667,923 $708,054 $748,143
Financing Data (1996 on) Deprec. Capital Tot. Debt Curr. Portion LT Portion Rate
Long-term debt $170,000 $10,428 $159,572 10.00%
Short-term debt $0 10.00%
Capital stock issued $30,000
Additional paid-in capital $0
Accumulated depreciation (as of 1995) $0

Five-Year Financial Summary—Balance Sheet

ASSETS As of 1/1/95 Actual 1995 Actual 1996 Annualized 1997 Projected 1998 Projected 1999
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents $13,362 $529,572 $630,260 $821,302 $975,639 $1,426,603
Accounts receivable $6,882 $427,864 $963,105 $1,016,034 $1,320,844 $1,651,055
Inventory $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Other current assets $0 $22,083 $7,554 $15,000 $30,000 $30,000
Total Current Assets $20,514 $979,519 $1,600,919 $1,852,336 $2,326,483 $3,107,658
Fixed Assets
Automobiles $0 $9,057 $0 $0 $0 $0
Cattle $12,703 $12,703 $12,703 $12,703 $12,703 $12,703
Equipment/Furnitures/Fixtures $50,915 $99,047 $136,347 $136,347 $136,347 $136,347
Subtotal $63,618 $120,807 $149,050 $149,050 $149,050 $149,050
Less-accumulated depreciation $29,467 $33,791 $31,727 $48,975 $48,975 $48,975
Total Fixed Assets $34,151 $87,016 $117,323 $100,075 $100,075 $100,075
Intangible Assets
Cost $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Less-accumulated amortization $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Intangible Assets $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Other assets $540 $5,164 $45,442 $50,000 $60,000 $65,000
Total Assets $55,205 $1,071,699 $1,763,684 $2,002,411 $2,486,558 $3,272,733
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS 'EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable $0 $48,588 $584,033 $563,545 $752,583 $1,071,147
Notes payable $0 $0 $350,000 $350,000 $350,000 $350,000
Current portion of long-term debt $0 $57,895 $13,652 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000
Income taxes $0 $4,965 $38,653 $75,572 $100,769 $162,981
Accrued expenses $0 $7,223 $21,577 $39,125 $46,620 $54,695
Other current liabilities $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Current Liabilities $0 $118,671 $1,007,915 $1,043,242 $1,264,972 $1,653,823
Non-Current Liabilities
Long-term debt $0 $802,588 $529,559 $529,559 $529,559 $529,559
Deferred income $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Deferred income taxes ($8,883) $4,846 $27,000 $35,000 $35,000 $40,000
Other long-term liabilities $9,917
Total Liabilities $1,034 $926,105 $1,564,474 $1,607,801 $1,829,531 $2,223,382
Stockholders' Equity Capital stock issued
Additional paid in capital $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Retained earnings ($28,329) $63,094 $116,710 $312,110 $574,527 $966,851
Total Equity $54,171 $145,594 $199,210 $394,610 $657,027 $1,049,351
Total Liabilities and Equity $55,205 $1,071,699 $1,763,684 $2,002,411 $2,486,558 $3,272,733
"C" Corporation (Y/N) Y
Cash balance positive or (negative) Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive
Amount sheet is out-of-balance $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Amount cash flow out-of-balance $0 $0 $0 $0 $0

Five-Year Financial Summary—Income Statement

Sales Actual 1995 Actual 1996 Annualized 1997 Projected 1998 Projected 1999
Sales $2,767,519 $4,126,409 $6,180,872 $8,035,134 $10,043,917
Cost of sales $2,231,679 $3,186,679 $5,111,028 $6,644,336 $8,305,420
Gross profit $535,840 $939,730 $1,069,844 $1,390,797 $1,738,497
Expenses
Operating expenses $391,889 $713,582 $769,833 $909,419 $1,059,710
Interest $81,703 $86,613 $108,373 $113,792 $119,481
Depreciation $10,628 $$17,245 $0 $0 $0
Amortization $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Total expenses $484,219 $817,440 $878,206 $1,023,211 $1,179,191
Operating income $51,621 $122,290 $191,638 $367,586 $559,305
Other income and expenses
Gain (loss) on sale of assets
Other (net) $25,619 $30,797 $30,000 $30,600 $36,000
Subtotal $25,619 $30,797 $30,000 $30,600 $36,000
Income before tax $77,240 $153,087 $221,638 $398,186 $595,305
Taxes (Federal & State) $885 $52,198 $75,572 $135,769 $202,981
Rate 1.146% 34.10% 34.10% 34.10% 34.10%
Net income $76,355 $100,889 $146,066 $262,417 $392,324
Retained earnings-beginning ($28,329) $63,094 $116,710 $312,110 $574,527
Dividends paid $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Retained earnings-ending $48,026 $163,983 $262,776 $574,527 $966,851
Detailed Supporting Information
Cost of sales
Direct labor $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Sub-Contractors $2,231,679 $3,186,679 $5,111,028 $6,644,336 $8,305,420
Other costs

Five-Year Financial Summary—Cash Flow Sheet

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Cash from operations
Net earnings (loss) $76,355 $100,889 $146,066 $262,417 $392,324
Add-depreciation and amortization $10,628 $17,245 $0 $0 $0
Net cash from operations $86,983 $118,134 $146,066 $262,417 $392,324
Cash provided (used) by operating activities
Accounts Receivable ($420,982) ($535,241) ($52,929) ($304,810) ($330,211)
Inventory $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Other current assets ($22,083) $14,529 ($7,446) ($15,000) $0
Other non-current assets ($4,624) ($40,278) ($4,558) ($10,000) ($5,000)
Accounts payable $48,588 $535,445 ($20,488) $189,038 $318,564
Current portion of long-term debt $57,895 ($44,243) $1,348 $0 $0
Income taxes $13,729 $33,688 $36,919 $25,197 $62,212
Accrued expenses $7,223 $14,354 $17,548 $7,495 $8,075
Other current liabilities $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Dividends paid $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Net cash from operations ($320,254) ($21,746) ($29,606) ($108,080) $53,640
Investment transactions
Increases (decreases)
Automobiles $9,057 ($9,057) $0 $0 $0
Cattle $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Equipment $48,132 $37,300 $0 $0 $0
Intangible assets $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Net cash from investments $57,189 $28,243 $0 $0 $0
Financing transactions
Increases (decreases)
Short-term notes payable $0 $350,000 $0 $0 $0
Long-term debt $802,588 ($273,029) $0 $0 $0
Deferred income $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Deferred income taxes $13,729 $22,154 $8,000 $0 $5,000
Other long-term liabilities ($9,917) $0 $0 $0 $0
Capital stock and paid in capital $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
Net cash from financing $806,400 $99,125 $8,000 $0 $5,000
Net increase (decrease) in cash $515,940 $167,270 $124,460 $154,337 $450,964
Cash at beginning of period $13,632 $529,572 $630,260 $821,302 $975,639
Cash at the end of period $529,572 $630,260 $821,302 $975,639 $1,426,603

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Cash Flow Projection - First Year

Month Start-Up Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6
Nov-96 Dec-96 Jan-97 Feb-97 Mar-97 Apr-97 May-97
Cash Receipts:
Number of Houses 4 6 8 10 12 14
Income-Stucco 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000 175,000
Income-Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0 0 0
Owner's Equity (15%) 30,000
Loan 170,000
Total Cash Received 200,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000 175,000
Disbursements:
Cost of Gds Sold/Inventory 21,000 14,000 21,000 28,000 35,000 42,000 49,000
Salaries-Officers 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000
Salaries-Manager 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
Salaries-Superintendent 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000
Salaries-Office 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000
Labor-Scaffolding/Clean-Up 64,400 1,600 2,400 3,200 4,000 4,800 5,600
Payroll Taxes & Benefits 5,150 5,350 5,550 5,750 5,950 6,150
Subcontract Labor-Lathe 6,400 9,600 12,800 16,000 19,200 22,400
Subcontract Labor-Brown/Color 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000
Maintenance & Repair 500 500 500 500 500 500
Vehicles - Fuel 540 810 1,080 1,350 1,620 1,890
Insurance-Workman's Comp 6,180 6,420 6,660 6,900 7,140 7,380
Insurance-Other 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Telephone/Radio/Utilities 500 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Advertising/Marketing/P.R. 500 500 500 500 500 500
Professsional Services 2,000 500 500 500 500 500 500
Office Expense/Postage 255 383 510 638 765 893
Organ. Exp./Amortization 1,000 50 50 50 50 50 50
Depreciation 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973
Trucks/Equipment/Furniture 54,000
Equipment Rental/Leases 1,400 2,100 2,800 3,500 4,200 4,900
Rent 5,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
Miscellaneous Expenses 8,000 1,500 2,250 3,000 3,750 4,500 5,250
Total Cash Paid Out 156,900 74,048 92,336 110,623 128,911 147,198 165,486
Loans Section:
Interest 1,417 1,410 1,403 1,396 1,389 1,382
Principal 830 837 844 851 858 865
Cash Payments to Loans 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247
Taxable Income -25,465 -18,746 -12,026 -5,307 1,413 8,133
Income Tax (25.9%) -6,490 -4,777 -3,065 -1,352 360 2,073
Net Income -18,975 -13,968 -8,961 -3,954 1,053 6,060
Loans (Balance) 170,000 169,170 168,333 167,490 166,639 165,781 164,916
Dividends Paid -9,488 -6,984 -4,481 -1,977 526 3,030
Beginning Cash 43,100
Month 7 Month 8 Month 9 Month 10 Month 11 Month 12 Totals
Jun-97 Jul-97 Aug-97 Sep-97 Oct-97 Nov-97
16 20 22 20 18 16 166
200,000 250,000 275,000 250,000 225,000 200,000 2,075,000
0 0 0 0 0 0 $0
200,000 250,000 275,000 250,000 225,000 200,000 $2,075,000
56,000 70,000 77,000 70,000 63,000 56,000 $581,000
8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 $96,000
5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 $60,000
4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 $48,000
2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 $24,000
6,400 8,000 8,800 8,000 7,200 6,400 $66,400
6,350 6,750 6,950 6,750 6,550 6,350 $73,600
25,600 32,000 35,200 32,000 28,800 25,600 $265,600
40,000 50,000 55,000 50,000 45,000 40,000 $415,000
500 500 500 500 500 500 $6,000
2,160 2,700 2,970 2,700 2,430 2,160 $22,410
7,620 8,100 8,340 8,100 7,860 7,620 $88,320
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 $12,000
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 $12,000
500 500 500 500 500 500 $6,000
500 500 500 500 500 500 $6,000
1,020 1,275 1,403 1,275 1,148 1,020 $10,583
50 50 50 50 50 50 $600
1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 $23,680
$0
5,600 7,000 7,700 7,000 6,300 5,600 $58,100
2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 $30,000
6,000 7,500 8,250 7,500 6,750 6,000 $62,250
183,773 220,348 238,636 220,348 202,061 183,773 $1,967,543
1,374 1,367 1,360 1,352 1,345 1,337 $16,531
872 880 887 894 902 909 $10,428
2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 $26,959
14,852 28,285 35,004 28,299 21,594 14,889 $90,927
3,785 7,208 8,921 7,212 5,503 3,794 $23,172
11,067 21,076 26,084 21,087 16,091 11,095 $67,754
164,043 163,164 162,277 161,383 160,481 159,572
5,534 10,538 13,042 10,544 8,046 5,547 33,877

Cash Flow Projection - Second Year

Month Month 13 Month 14 Month 15 Month 16 Month 17 Month 18 Month 19
Dec-97 Jan-98 Feb-98 Mar-98 Apr-98 May-98 Jun-98
Cash Receipts:
Number of Houses 12 12 10 12 14 16 18
Income-Stucco 156,000 156,000 130,000 156,000 182,000 208,000 234,000
Income-Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Owner's Equity
Loan
Total Cash Received 156,000 156,000 130,000 156,000 182,000 208,000 234,000
Disbursements:
Cost of Gds Sold/Inventory 44,160 44,160 36,800 44,160 51,520 58,880 66,240
Salaries-Officers 8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500
Salaries-Manager 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250
Salaries-Superintendent 4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200
Salaries-Office 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100
Labor-Scaffolding/Clean-Up 5,040 5,040 4,200 5,040 5,880 6,720 7,560
Payroll Taxes & Benefits 6,273 6,273 6,063 6,273 6,483 6,693 6,903
Subcontract Labor-Lathe 26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880
Subcontract Labor-Brown/Color 31,500 31,500 26,250 31,500 36,750 42,000 47,250
Maintenance & Repair 750 750 750 750 750 750 750
Vehicles - Fuel 1,620 1,620 1,350 1,620 1,890 2,160 2,430
Insurance-Workman's Comp 7,527 7,527 7,275 7,527 7,779 8,031 8,283
Insurance-Other 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250
Telephone/Radio/Utilities 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050
Advertising/Marketing/P.R. 525 525 525 525 525 525 525
Professsional Services 550 550 550 550 550 550 550
Office Expense/Postage 796 796 663 796 928 1,061 1,193
Organ. Exp./Amortization 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Depreciation 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973
Equipment/Furniture
Equipment Rental/Leases 5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880
Rent 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000
Miscellaneous Expenses 4,680 4,680 3,900 4,680 5,460 6,240 7,020
Total Cash Paid Out 163,553 163,553 148,459 163,553 178,648 193,743 208,837
Loans Section:
Interest 1,330 1,322 1,314 1,307 1,299 1,291 1,283
Principal 917 924 932 940 948 956 964
Cash Payments to Loans 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247
Taxable Income -8,883 -8,876 -19,773 -8,860 2,053 12,966 23,880
Income Tax (31.3%) -2,776 -2,774 -6,180 -2,769 642 4,052 7,463
Net Income -6,107 -6,102 -13,593 -6,091 1,411 8,914 16,417
Loans (Balance) 158,655 157,731 156,779 155,859 154,911 153,955 152,992
Dividends Paid -3,053 -3,051 -6,797 -3,046 706 4,457 8,208
Month 20 Month 21 Month 22 Month 23 Month 24 Totals
Jul-98 Aug-98 Sep-98 Oct-98 Nov-98
20 22 22 20 18 196
260,000 286,000 286,000 260,000 234,000 $2,548,000
0 0 0 0 0 $0
260,000 286,000 286,000 260,000 234,000 $2,548,000
73,600 80,960 80,960 73,600 66,240 $721,280
8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500 8,500 $102,000
5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 5,250 $63,000
4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200 4,200 $50,400
2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 2,100 $25,200
8,400 9,240 9,240 8,400 7,560 $82,320
7,113 7,323 7,323 7,113 6,903 $80,730
26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880 26,880 $322,560
52,500 57,750 57,750 52,500 47,250 $415,000
750 750 750 750 750 $9,000
2,700 2,970 2,970 2,700 2,430 $26,460
8,535 8,787 8,787 8,535 8,283 $96,876
1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 $15,000
1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 $12,600
525 525 525 525 525 $6,300
550 550 550 550 550 $6,600
1,326 1,459 1,459 1,326 1,193 $12,995
50 50 50 50 50 $600
1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 $23,680
5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880 5,880 $70,560
3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 $36,000
7,800 8,580 8,580 7,800 7,020 $76,440
223,932 239,026 239,026 223,932 208,837 $2,355,101
1,275 1,267 1,259 1,250 1,242 $15,439
972 980 988 996 1,004 $11,520
2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 $26,959
34,793 45,707 45,715 34,818 23,921 $177,461
10,874 14,285 14,287 10,882 7,476 $55,463
23,919 31,422 31,427 23,936 16,445 $121,998
152,020 151,040 150,052 149,056 148,052
11,960 15,711 15,714 11,968 8,222 60,999

Cash Flow Projection - Third Year

Month Month 25 Month 26 Month 27 Month 28 Month 29 Month 30 Month 31
Dec-98 Jan-99 Feb-99 Mar-99 Apr-99 May-99 Jun-99
Cash Receipts:
Number of Houses 14 12 10 12 14 16 20
Income-Stucco 190,400 163,200 136,000 163,200 190,400 217,600 272,000
Income-Miscellaneous 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Owner's Equity
Loan
Total Cash Received 190,400 163,200 136,000 163,200 190,400 217,600 272,000
Disbursements:
Cost of Gds Sold/Inventory 54,180 46,440 38,700 46,440 54,180 61,920 77,400
Salaries-Officers 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000
Salaries-Manager 5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513
Salaries-Superintendent 4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410
Salaries-Office 2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205
Labor-Scaffolding/Clean-Up 6,160 5,280 4,400 5,280 6,160 7,040 8,800
Payroll Taxes & Benefits 6,822 6,602 6,382 6,602 6,822 7,042 7,482
Subcontract Labor-Lathe 28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224
Subcontract Labor-Brown/Color 38,780 33,240 27,700 33,240 38,780 44,320 55,400
Maintenance & Repair 850 850 850 850 850 850 850
Vehicles - Fuel 1,890 1,620 1,350 1,620 1,890 2,160 2,430
Insurance-Workman's Comp 8,186 7,922 7,658 7,922 8,186 8,450 8,978
Insurance-Other 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500
Telephone/Radio/Utilities 1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103
Advertising/Marketing/P.R. 551 551 551 551 551 551 551
Professsional Services 600 600 600 600 600 600 600
Office Expense/Postage 971 832 694 832 971 1,110 1,387
Organ. Exp./Amortization 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Depreciation 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973
Equipment/Furniture
Equipment Rental/Leases 3,500 3,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 5,000
Rent 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500
Miscellaneous Expenses 5,712 4,896 4,080 4,896 5,712 6,528 8,160
Total Cash Paid Out 185,680 169,311 152,942 169,311 185,680 202,048 234,786
Loans Section:
Interest 1,234 1,225 1,217 1,208 1,200 1,191 1,182
Principal 1,013 1,021 1,030 1,038 1,047 1,056 1,065
Cash Payments to Loans 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247
Taxable Income 3,486 -7,336 -18,159 -7,319 3,521 14,361 36,032
Income Tax (33.1%) 1,152 -2,425 -6,003 -2,419 1,164 4,747 11,911
Net Income 2,334 -4,911 -12,156 -4,900 2,357 9,614 24,121
Loans (Balance) 147,039 146,018 144,988 143,950 142,903 141,847 140,783
Dividends Paid 1,167 -2,456 -6,078 -2,450 1,178 4,807 12,061
Month 32 Month 33 Month 34 Month 35 Month 36 Totals
Jul-99 Aug-99 Sep-99 Oct-99 Nov-99
22 24 24 22 18 208
299,200 326,400 326,400 299,200 244,800 $2,652,000
0 0 0 0 0 $0
299,200 326,400 326,400 299,200 244,800 $2,828,800
85,140 92,880 92,880 85,140 69,660 $804,960
9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,000 $108,000
5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513 5,513 $66,150
4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410 4,410 $52,920
2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205 2,205 $26,460
9,680 10,560 10,560 9,680 7,920 $91,520
7,702 7,922 7,922 7,702 7,262 $86,263
28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224 28,224 $338,688
60,940 66,480 66,480 60,940 49,860 $576,160
850 850 850 850 850 $10,200
2,700 2,970 2,970 2,700 2,430 $28,080
9,242 9,506 9,506 9,242 8,714 $103,515
1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 $18,000
1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103 1,103 $13,230
551 551 551 551 551 $6,615
600 600 600 600 600 $7,200
1,526 1,665 1,665 1,526 1,248 $14,427
50 50 50 50 50 $600
1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 1,973 $23,680
5,500 6,000 6,000 5,500 4,500 $52,000
3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 $42,000
8,976 9,792 9,792 8,976 7,344 $84,864
251,155 267,523 267,523 251,155 218,417 $2,555,531
1,173 1,164 1,155 1,146 1,037 $14,232
1,073 1,082 1,091 1,100 1,110 $12,726
2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 2,247 $26,959
46,872 57,712 57,721 46,899 25,246 $259,036
15,494 19,077 19,080 15,503 8,345 $85,626
31,378 38,635 38,641 31,396 16,901 $173,410
139,709 138,627 137,535 136,435 135,325
15,689 19,318 19,321 15,698 8,450 86,705

Average Monthly Break-Even Analysis 1997

——— Per Month 1997———
Cost Variables Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic
-20.00% Case 20.00%
Fixed Costs
Rent $3,900 $48,876 $5,851
Salaries (Fixed/Owners) $7,590 $9,488 $11,385
Insurance $5,336 $6,671 $8,005
Depreciation & Amortization $0 $0 $0
Interest $7,225 $9,031 $10,837
Utilities/Phone $2,608 $32,600 $3,912
(Other fixed costs) $0 $0 $0
Total Fixed Costs $26,659 $33,324 $39,989
Variable Costs
Cost of Goods Sold/Subcontractors $340,735 $425,919 $511,130
Equipment Rental/Leases $58 $73 $87
Other Salaries $7,291 $9,114 $10,937
Freight $840 $1,050 $1,261
Office Equipment/Leases $3,035 $3,794 $4,553
Payroll Taxes/Benefits $3,934 $4,917 $5,901
Vehicle Expenses & Leases $2,244 $2,805 $3,366
Advertising/Marketing/Public Relations $1,319 $1,649 $1,979
Professional Services $5,046 $6,308 $7,569
(Other variable costs) $8,120 $10,150 $12,180
Total Variable Costs $372,623 $465,779 $558,934
Sales and Income Data:
Average Income Per Customer $706,385 $588,654 $470,923
Average # of Customers Per Month 12.60 10.50 8.40
Fixed Costs per Customer $2,115.83 $3,173.75 $4,760.62
Variable Costs per Customer $29,573.24 $44,359.86 $66,539.79
Break-Even Number of Customers 0.04 0.06 0.1
Number of Customers over Break-Even 12.6 10.4 8.3
Break-Even Sales Amount $27,824.35 $36,040.26 $46,569.27
Total Sales at Expected Level of Customers
Gross Profit per Customer $676,811.56 $544,294.14 $404,383.41
Gross Profit (over Break-Even) $8,501,166 $5,681,764 $3,356,831

Break-Even Analysis is a mathematical technique for analyzing the relationship between profits and fixed and variable costs. It is also a profit planning tool for calculating the point at which sales will equal costs. The above analysis indicates 1997 break-even number customers at .06 per month and break-even income at $36,040 per month. Anything over these amounts will be profit.

Common Size Income Statement
Actual Actual Annualized Projected Projected Industry
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1996
Total Revenue 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Cost of Sales 80.6% 77.2% 82.7% 82.7% 82.7% 85.7%
Gross Profit 19.4% 22.8% 17.3% 17.3% 17.3% 14.3%
Operating Expenses 17.5% 19.8% 14.2% 12.7% 11.7% 12.8%
Operating Profit 1.9% 3.0% 3.1% 4.6% 5.6% 1.5%
Other Expen./Inc(Net) 0.9% 0.7% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.4%
Pre-Tax Profit 2.8% 3.7% 3.6% 5.0% 5.9% 2.9%
Income Taxes 0.0% 1.3% 1.2% 1.7% 2.0% 0.5%
Income After Tax 2.8% 2.4% 2.4% 3.3% 3.9% 2.4%
Common Size Balance Sheet
Cash & Equivalent 49.4% 35.7% 41.0% 39.2% 43.6% 20.3%
Accounts Receivable 39.9% 54.6% 50.7% 53.1% 50.4% 54.2%
Inventory 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1%
Other Current 2.1% 0.4% 0.7% 1.2% 0.9% 8.9%
Total Current Assets 91.4% 90.8% 92.5% 93.6% 95.0% 84.5%
Fixed Assets (Net) 8.1% 6.7% 5.0% 4.0% 3.1% 6.4%
Intangibles 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2%
Other Assets 0.5% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.0% 8.9%
Total Assets 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Liabilities:
Accounts Payable 4.5% 33.1% 28.1% 30.3% 32.7% 47.6%
Short Term Notes 0.0% 19.8% 17.5% 14.1% 10.7% 2.0%
Current Maturities (LTD) 5.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.9%
Income Taxes 0.5% 2.2% 3.8% 4.1% 5.0% 0.6%
Accured Expenses 0.7% 1.2% 2.0% 1.9% 1.7% 4.7%
Other Current Liabilities 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 12.6%
Total Current Liabilities 11.1% 57.1% 52.1% 50.9% 50.5% 68.4%
Long-Term Debt 74.9% 30.0% 26.4% 21.3% 16.2% 4.0%
Other Non-Current 0.5% 1.5% 1.7% 1.4% 1.2% 3.6%
Total Liabilities 86.4% 88.7% 80.3% 73.6% 67.9% 76.0%
Total Equity 13.6% 11.3% 19.7% 26.4% 32.1% 24.0%
Total Liabilities & Equity 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

RATIO COMPARISON

Ratio analysis can be one of the most useful financial management tools. It becomes important when you look at the trend of each ratio over time. It also becomes important when compared to averages of a particular industry.

Actual Actual Annualized Projected Projected Industry
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Ave.-1996
Liquidity Ratios
Current Ratio 8.25 1.59 1.78 1.84 1.88 1.4
Quick Ratio 8.07 1.58 1.76 1.82 1.86 1.1
Sales/Receivables 6.47 4.28 6.08 6.08 6.08 7.78
Days' Reeivables 56.43 85.19 60.00 60.00 60.00 46.9
Cost of Sales/Inventory 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.4
Days' Inventory 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cost of Sales/Payables 45.93 5.46 9.07 8.83 7.75 8.06
Day's Payables 7.95 66.89 40.25 41.34 47.07 45.3
Sales/Work. Capital 3.21 6.96 7.64 7.57 6.91
EBIT/Interest 1.95 2.77 3.05 4.50 5.98 8.1
Net Profit+Depr.+Amort./C.L.T.D. 1.50 8.65 9.74 17.49 26.15
Leverage Ratios
Fixed Assets/Tang. Net Worth 0.60 0.59 0.25 0.15 0.10 0.26
Debt/Worth 6.36 7.85 4.07 2.78 2.12 2.9
Operating Ratios
Profit Before Tax/Tan. Net Worth 53.05% 76.85% 56.17% 60.60% 56.73% 13.50%
Profit Before Tax/Total Assets 7.21% 8.68% 11.07% 16.01% 18.19%
Sales/Net Fixed Assets 31.80 35.17 61.76 80.29 100.36 26.7
Sales/Total Assets 2.58 2.34 3.09 3.23 3.07 3.1
Other Ratios
% Deprec., Amort./Sales 0.38 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70
% Officer' Compensation/Sales 3.19 3.85 1.77 1.43 1.20 2.90
Gross Profit $535,840 $939,730 $1,069,844 $1,390,797 $1,738,497
Key Percentages as a Percent of Gross Profit
Rent 2.80% 2.82% 5.47% 4.44% 3.73% 0.40%
Interest Paid 15.25% 9.22% 10.13% 8.18% 6.87% 0.60%
Depreciation & Amortization 1.98% 1.84% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.70%
Officers Compensation 18.66% 10.64% 10.64% 8.60% 7.22% 2.90%
Taxes Paid 0.17% 0.00% 7.06% 9.76% 11.68% 1.30%
Note on Key Percentages as a percent of Gross Profit above:

Rent, Interest Paid, Officers' Compensation, and Taxes Paid are in large part attributable to Smith Contractors being a new company. It has spent the first three years building, staffing, and equipping the business. As the sales and income go up, these percentages will go down and become more in line with industry averages. The hiring of a new comptroller should help reduce the amount of taxes paid and allow the company to more closely monitor expenses. The important ratio of % of Officers' Compensation to Sales is well within line for 1997 and after.

RATIO COMPARISON

1. The Current Ratio is an approximate measure of a firm's ability to meet its current obligations and is calculated as Current Assets/Current Liabilities.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s current ratio is on an upward trend. This would indicate that the amount of current assets is increasing steadily as is the "cushion" between current liabilities and the ability to pay them. It could suggest that Smith Contractors has a relatively more stable position than the industry and seems to suggest that there is an opportunity for expanded operations.

2. The Revenue to Receivables ratio measures the number of times trade receivables turn over in a year. It is calculated as the Net Revenue/Trade Receivables.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent revenue to receivables ratio is on a downward trend. This indicates that collection methods need to be improved. (This has been done.)

3. The Cost of Goods to Payables ratio measures the number of times trade payables turn over in a year. It is calculated as Cost of Goods Sold/Trade Payables.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent cost of goods to payables ratio is on a downward trend. This indicates that the company may be experiencing cash shortages due to the amount of time between the payment of supplies or subcontractors and receipt of payment for its billings. It might want to consider extending the time it takes to pay for supplies or subcontractors.

4. The Revenue to Working Capital ratio is a measure of the margin of protection for current creditors. It is calculated as Net Revenue/{Current Assets-Current Liabilities}. (This has been corrected with the change in payment policy to subcontractors.)

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent revenue to working capital ratio is on an upward trend. This indicates efficient use of working capital.

5. The EBIT to Interest ratio is a measure of ability to meet annual interest payments. It is calculated as Earnings before interest and taxes/Annual Interest Expense.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent EBIT to interest ratio is on an upward trend. This indicates that the company should not have a problem servicing its debt. The figures for 1997-1999 is above industry median figures. This could indicate that the company is better able to make interest payments and could possibly handle more debt.

6. The Current Maturities Coverage ratio is a measure of ability to pay current maturities of short-term debt with cash flow from operations. It is calculated as {Net Income + Depreciation, Amortization, and Depletion}/Current Portion of Long-Term Debt.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent Current Maturities Coverage ratio is on an upward trend. This indicates that the cash flow available to service debt are increasing relative to the level of debt. The figures for 1997-1999 is above industry median figures. This indicates that the company is better able to service debt and could possibly indicate additional debt capacity.

7. The Fixed Assets to Tangible Net Worth ratio measures the extent to which owners' equity has been invested in property, plant, and equipment. It is calculated as Net Fixed Assets/{Equity - Net Intangible Assets}.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s fixed asset to tangible net worth ratio is on a downward trend. This indicates that the investment in fixed assets relative to net worth is decreasing and results in a larger "cushion" for creditors in the event of liquidation.

8. The Debt to Equity ratio expresses the relationship between capital contributed by creditors and capital contributed by owners. It is calculated as Total Liabilities/Net Worth.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent debt to equity ratio is on a downward trend. This indicates the company is achieving greater short-term financial safety.

9. The Earnings Before Tax to Tangible Net Worth ratio expresses the rate of return on tangible capital employed. It is calculated as (Earnings Before Taxes/{Net Worth-Net Intangible Assets} * 100.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s earnings before tax to tangible net worth ratio is on a downward trend. For the period 1997 to 1999 this ratio is above industry median earnings. This indicates that the company is out-performing the industry but can also indicate that the business is undercapitalized.

10. The Earning Before Tax to Total Assets ratio expresses the pre-tax return on total assets and measures the effectiveness of management in employing available resources. It is calculated as (Earnings Before Tax/Total Assets) * 100.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s recent Earnings Before Tax to total assets ratio has been on an upward trend. This indicates an increasingly effective use of available resources.

11. The Officers', Directors', Owners' compensation to Sales ratio is a general measure of ability to compensate top employees. It is calculated as Officers' Salaries/Sales.

Smith Contractors, Inc.'s trend is downward. This can indicate an increasing effectiveness of management or that the business is becoming more service oriented and less capital intensive.

Actual Actual Annualized Projected Projected
Category/Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Current Assets $979,519 $1,600,919 $1,852,336 $2,326,483 $3,107,658
Fixed Assets $87,016 $117,323 $100,075 $100,075 $100,075
Other Assets $5,164 $45,442 $50,000 $60,000 $65,000
Total Assets $1,071,699 $1,763,684 $2,002,411 $2,486,558 $3,272,733
Current Liabilities $118,671 $1,007,915 $1,043,242 $1,264,972 $1,653,823
Long-Term Liabilities $802,588 $529,559 $529,559 $529,559 $529,559
Other Liabilities $4,846 $27,000 $35,000 $35,000 $40,000
Total Liabilities $926,105 $1,564,474 $1,607,801 $1,829,531 $2,223,382
Stock $82,500 $82,500 $82,500 $82,500 $82,500
Current Earnings $76,355 $100,889 $146,066 $262,417 $392,324
Retained Earnings (minus dividends) -$28,329 $63,094 $116,710 $312,110 $574,527
Net Worth $130,626 $246,483 $345,276 $657,027 $1,049,351
Liabilities + Net Worth $1,056,631 $1,810,957 $1,953,077 $2,486,558 $3,272,733
Working Capital $860,848 $593,004 $809,094 $1,061,511 $1,453,835
Sales $2,767,519 $4,126,409 $6,180,872 $8,035,134 $1,004,391
Earning Before Taxes & Interest $208,903 $208,903 $330,011 $481,378 $714,787
Book Value (minus intangibles) $145,594 $199,210 $394,610 $657,027 $1,043,351
WC/TA (x 1) 0.80 0.34 0.40 0.43 0.44
RE/TA (x2) 0.04 0.09 0.13 0.23 0.30
EBIT/TA (x3) 0.19 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.22
Book Value/TL (x4) 0.16 0.13 0.25 0.36 0.47
Sales/TA (x5) 2.58 2.34 3.09 3.23 3.07
Calculated Z Scores 3.86 3.08 4.10 4.48 4.51

SCORES ABOVE 2.91 INDICATE THE FIRM IS SAFE FROM BANKRUPTCY THE HIGHER THE SCORES - THE SAFER THE COMPANY

The Z Score Formula = 0.717*(X1) + 0.847*(X2) + 3.107*(X3) + 0.420*(X4) +

If the Z Score is Greater than or Equal to 2.9 the subject firm is apparently safe from bankruptcy. If the Z Score is Less than or Equal to 1.2 the subject may be destined for bankruptcy. If the Z Score is between 1.23 and 2.9 the firm is in a gray area and steps could be taken by management to correct existing or potential problems in order to avoid bankruptcy.

Z Score analysis is a statistical method developed to forecast bankruptcy. It is over 90% accurate one year into the future and 80% accurate for the second year.

In this instance we used the 1995 and 1996 actual figures, Estimated 1997, Projected 1998, and 1999 figures to determine the above scores.

The Z Scores indicated above are all well over 2.91 which indicates that the company will not be a candidate for bankruptcy if it can achieve the goals outlined in this plan.

Annual Total
Net Income IRR MIRR Dividends Assets
Initial Investment ($82,500) $0 $55,205
1995-Actual $76,355 -7.45% -7.45% $0 $1,071,699
1996-Actual $100,889 66.15% 193.72% $0 $1,763,684
1997-Annualized $146,066 98.84% 313.67% $0 $2,002,411
1998-Projected $262,417 117.31% 388.50% $0 $2,486,558
1999-Projected $392,324 126.50% 439.27% $0 $3,272,733

Assumptions:

Income figures are after taxes Dividend Payout is currently zero Reinvestment rate = 7%

IRR = Internal Rate of Return MIRR = Modified Rate of Return ROI = Rate of Return on Owner's Investment ROA = Rate of Return on Total Assets

IRR= the interest rate received for an investment and income that occur at regular periods. MIRR=adds the cost of funds and interest received on reinvestment of cash to the IRR.

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
Return on Assets 7.12% 5.72% 7.29% 10.55% 11.99%
Return on Investment 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
Income Per Share $0.93 $1.22 $1.77 $3.18 $4.76
Dividends Per Share $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00

CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY

A review of the first eight years of Smith Contractors' existence show that it has been immensely successful. Even in its first full year of operation, it reached industry standards of performance. This is unheard of for a start-up company. Each subsequent year has shown significant improvement in profitability and operational performance.

During the first eight years the company concentrated upon being profitable, building its staff and equipping its office. Smith Contractors is now ready to step up to the next level and utilize economies of scale to make the projected numbers even more striking.

Smith Contractors has also undertaken major changes in philosophy in billing and payment of subcontractors and suppliers which will dramatically increase cash flow. The company has also hired a full-time marketing manager and is in the process of hiring a full-time controller. It also utilizes the services of a professional business consultant to help analyze the financial information and make suggestions for the future. Smith Contractors will conduct a complete review of the actual figures and compare them to budgets and peers periodically throughout the year.

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