Carrier Corporation History


Wholly Owned Subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation
Incorporated: 1915 as Carrier Engineering Corporation
Employees: 38,977
Sales: $9.25 billion (2003)
NAIC: 333415 Air-Conditioning and Warm Air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing; 333994 Industrial Process Furnace and Oven Manufacturing

Company Perspectives:

Carrier Mission: To be our customers' first choice for air-conditioning, heating and refrigeration solutions everywhere around the world.

Key Dates:

Willis Haviland Carrier, then working for Buffalo Forge Company, designs the world's first scientific air conditioning system; it is installed at a printing plant in Brooklyn.
Carrier receives a U.S. patent for an "Apparatus for Treating Air."
Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America begins operating as a wholly owned subsidiary of Buffalo Forge.
Carrier and colleagues leave Buffalo Forge to set up an independent air conditioning venture, Carrier Engineering Corporation, based in Buffalo.
Company begins selling centrifugal refrigeration systems.
Company sells its first "comfort air conditioning" job, to the J.L. Hudson Department Store in Detroit; Carrier makes its first installation at a movie theater.
Carrier completes installation of the first air conditioning systems in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.
Company is incorporated in Delaware as Carrier Corporation.
Headquarters are shifted from New Jersey to Syracuse, New York.
Carrier is acquired by United Technologies Corporation (UTC) in a hostile takeover.

Mid-1980s:Carrier's white-collar workforce is reduced by 30 percent as part of a massive restructuring effort.
Carrier's headquarters are moved to Hartford, Connecticut, where UTC is based.
Carrier announces a worldwide chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) phaseout.
International Comfort Products Corporation is acquired; Toshiba Carrier Corporation joint venture is established with Japan's Toshiba Corporation.
Carrier acquires Specialty Equipment Companies, Inc.
Company closes its manufacturing plant located outside of Syracuse.
Linde Refrigeration is acquired from the German firm Linde AG.

Company History:

Carrier Corporation leads the world in the manufacture of residential and commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and equipment. Its businesses also include commercial, industrial, and transport refrigeration and cooling products. Carrier manufactures, sells, and services around 50 brands of products, among them heat pumps, furnaces, room air conditioners, packaged terminal air conditioners, chillers, ducted and ductless systems, compressors, condensers, and air cleaners. These products are manufactured at 80 facilities around the world, including 28 in the United States. Carrier maintains distribution channels and dealers in more than 172 countries; just in North America, the company has more than 200 distributors and 20,000 dealers. More than half of Carrier's workforce is employed outside the United States, while 40 percent of its revenues are generated abroad.

On July 6, 1979, Carrier Corporation became a wholly owned subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation (UTC), the Hartford-based diversified manufacturing giant perhaps best known for its Pratt & Whitney jet engine division, in a contentious takeover that drew the attention of the federal government. Carrier is one of UTC's five global enterprises, and in 2003 it accounted for 29 percent of UTC's revenues, making Carrier the largest of the five.

Willis Carrier, the Father of Air Conditioning

Though incorporated under its present name in 1930, the organization's roots extend back to the beginning of the 20th century when a newly graduated Cornell engineer, Willis Haviland Carrier, started work at the Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, New York, on July 1, 1901. The story of Carrier Corporation begins with its founder, who, by being the first researcher to combine air cooling with humidity control, became known as the inventor of modern air conditioning. Born November 26, 1876, on a farm in Angola, New York, a community in rural Erie County, Willis Haviland Carrier was the only child of Duane Carrier--who taught music to native Americans, tried running a general store, served a brief stint as postmaster, then took up farming--and his wife, Elizabeth Haviland, a descendent of a family of New England Quakers. Willis Carrier believed that he inherited his mechanical ability from his mother; she passed away when he was 11 years old.

Carrier graduated from Angola Academy, the local high school, in 1894 in the midst of a financial depression. Despite the problematic economics of his situation, he aspired to attend Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York. Carrier moved in with relatives in Buffalo and spent a year (1896-97) at Central High School in that city. In 1897 Carrier enrolled at Cornell on scholarships he had won through competitive examinations, graduating four years later with a degree in electrical engineering. He worked at odd jobs while in college to earn money for his living expenses.

Upon joining the Buffalo Forge Company shortly after graduation, Carrier was put to work on designs for a heating plant, boilers, and various types of systems for drying materials. He also began early on to pursue valuable research for his employer on the heat absorption of air when it circulated over steam-heating coils. Not surprisingly, the young engineer's first concentration, both practical and theoretical, was on heat, the core of Buffalo Forge's business.

The importance of Carrier's research activities was not lost on his managers and colleagues at Buffalo Forge. The company inaugurated a research program in 1902, with Willis Carrier as its unofficial director. That spring, Carrier's experiments drew the attention of a man who would become perhaps the most important figure in Carrier's career: J. Irvine Lyle, who was involved in sales and management for Buffalo Forge and in 1902 headed up the New York office. Like Carrier, Irvine Lyle was a farm boy; he grew up in Woodford County, Kentucky, and earned a degree in mechanical engineering in 1896. What prompted Lyle to seek out Carrier was a problem brought to Lyle by a consulting engineer working on behalf of the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company of Brooklyn. High humidity levels in Sackett-Wilhelm's plant were causing production problems and the company was looking for a way to control airborne moisture.

Carrier threw himself into research on air dehumidification and by July 17, 1902, had completed drawings for what came to be recognized as the world's first scientific air conditioning system. Designed for Sackett-Wilhelms, the system was installed beginning in the summer of 1902 and continuing into 1903. By October 1903, Lyle was able to report back to Buffalo Forge's home office on the success of the first modern air conditioner. In the words of Carrier's biographer, "Out of Willis Carrier's research and ingenuity and Irvine Lyle's faith and salesmanship, a new industry was conceived and given birth."

Carrier continued to develop his ideas for conditioning air by controlling moisture. On September 16, 1904, he applied for a patent on an invention he called an "Apparatus for Treating Air"; U.S. patent number 808897 was issued for the device on January 2, 1906. The "Apparatus for Treating Air" was the first spray-type air conditioning equipment, designed to humidify or dehumidify air by heating or cooling water. It "was to open thousands of industrial doors." The LaCrosse National Bank of LaCrosse, Wisconsin, became the first purchaser of the system in 1904. By 1907, the spray-type air conditioning equipment had been installed for a number of significant customers, principally manufacturers in such businesses as textiles, shoes, and pharmaceuticals. The Wayland silk mill in Wayland, New York, acquired the first automatically operated modern air conditioning system, which took into account the added heat of the sun. Air conditioning had also found its way overseas to a silk mill in Yokohama, Japan.

At the end of 1907, Carrier came up with another "invention"--a new company. He proposed the idea of creating a spinoff of Buffalo Forge to engineer and market air conditioning systems. In early 1908, Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America, a wholly owned subsidiary of Buffalo Forge Company, was in actual operation. The suggestion that the fledgling venture bear Carrier's name came from Lyle, perhaps with the intention of shielding the parent company if the air conditioning business failed. In any event, Carrier became vice-president of the subsidiary, although he remained in the employ of Buffalo Forge as its chief engineer and director of research, positions he had held since 1905. The sales manager of Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America, with headquarters in New York, was Irvine Lyle; the construction superintendent was Edmund P. Heckel; and the members of Lyle's staff included Boston-based Ernest T. Lyle, Irvine's younger brother and an experienced Buffalo Forge salesman, and Philadelphia-based Edward T. Murphy. In New York, Alfred E. Stacey, Jr., was chief engineer. When Stacey was transferred to Chicago in 1909, L. Logan Lewis joined the company as chief engineer. Murphy had worked with Carrier and Lyle in 1902 on the first air conditioner installation at Sackett-Wilhelms; Stacey and Heckel had worked with them on the Wayland silk mill system. Together, these men--the "original seven"--who had been together on the very first air conditioning projects would later found the organization that was the immediate precursor of Carrier Corporation.

By the end of Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America's first year in existence, the foundation of the air conditioning industry was firmly in place. Between 1908 and 1914, the firm took on one industry after another: tobacco, steel, and hospitality, among others. It sold air conditioning systems to paper mills, breweries, department stores, hotels, soap and rubber factories, candy and processed food plants, film studios, bakeries, and meatpackers--more than doubling its sales in the two-year period from 1912 to 1914. Despite this success, however, the Buffalo Forge Company decided in 1914, on the cusp of world war, to confine its activity to manufacturing. This alteration would require major changes at the air conditioning subsidiary. All the employees of Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America were to be discharged except Irvine Lyle, who was to be offered his old job as manager of Buffalo Forge's sales office in New York, and Willis Carrier, who was actually an employee of the parent company.

Independence from Buffalo Forge, 1915

Although secure in their positions at Buffalo Forge Company, Carrier and Lyle decided that they could not simply let go of the new industry they had built. Moving forward with their air conditioning venture necessitated moving away from Buffalo Forge. On June 26, 1915, Carrier Engineering Corporation was officially formed under the laws of New York State, and the "original seven" were in business for themselves. The founders were Willis Carrier, Irvine Lyle, Edward Murphy, L. Logan Lewis, Ernest Lyle, A.E Stacey, Jr., and Edmund Heckel; Carrier was president and Irvine Lyle assumed the positions of treasurer and general manager. Carrier Engineering Corporation opened its headquarters in Buffalo and its offices in New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston on July 1, 1915. The original capital was stock subscriptions totaling $2,500.

The new corporation's first decade saw not only a continuation of the previous success achieved in the air conditioning business (Carrier Engineering closed 40 contracts by the end of 1915), but also a breakthrough in refrigeration technology, another result of Willis Carrier's research creativity. In 1922 Carrier Engineering Corporation began manufacturing and selling the centrifugal refrigeration machines that its president and engineers had developed, equipment that represented the first major advance in mechanical refrigeration since David Boyle introduced the original ammonia compressor in 1872. The first sale of the centrifugal refrigeration system was to Stephen F. Whitman & Sons of Philadelphia, a candymaker.

While 1921 was a productive year for the highly promising refrigeration product line, it was a key year in other areas as well. Seeking space for expansion into manufacturing to produce the centrifugal refrigerators as well as for offices to house the company's headquarters, Carrier Engineering bought a building on Frelinghuysen Avenue in Newark, New Jersey. Willis Carrier went to Europe in search of low-cost suppliers of components for the refrigeration system and to help complete the organization of Carrier Engineering Company, Ltd., of England. Much was riding on the success of Carrier centrifugal refrigerating machine, which at that time was barely off the drawing boards.

Once that success was assured, Carrier Engineering set a new goal for the mid-1920s and beyond: to pioneer into a new market--comfort air conditioning. This market began to open in 1924 when Irvine Lyle sold the company's first "comfort job," a centrifugal refrigeration system to cool the J.L. Hudson Department Store in Detroit. It was the introduction of the new centrifugal systems to movie houses, however, that truly launched comfort cooling. Carrier Engineering's first such installation was at the Palace Theater in Dallas in the summer of 1924. Perhaps the firm's crowning contract in the new comfort market was its installation, completed in 1929, of the first air conditioning systems in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives.

Growth Through Consolidation and Acquisition: 1930s-60s

The history of the company that operates today under the UTC umbrella dates to the following year--October 31, 1930--when Carrier Corporation was incorporated in Delaware. The new entity was a consolidation of the Carrier Engineering Corporation and its subsidiaries, Carrier Construction Company, Inc., and W.J. Gamble Corporation, as well as several refrigeration and heating companies. Carrier Corporation's growth through the next three decades can be traced in the continuation of its merger and acquisition activities, which brought in, among other additions: Affiliated Gas Equipment, Inc., of Cleveland in 1955; the Elliott Company, a major subsidiary, in 1957; and a significant number of overseas organizations throughout the 1960s and 1970s. By the fourth quarter of 1977, shortly before UTC's unsolicited overtures, Carrier Corporation had more than 38 subsidiaries in locations as far flung as Japan, Singapore, and Australia; it operated, from its Syracuse, New York, headquarters (established in 1937), more than ten million square feet of manufacturing, warehouse, and office facilities in 23 states and 12 foreign countries; and it had diversified into a range of businesses that included energy process equipment (e.g., centrifugal air, gas compressors, and turbines), solid waste handling equipment, potentiometers (i.e., instruments for measuring electromotive forces), large electric motors, chemical specialty products for industry (e.g., inks and paints), and finance.

A "snapshot" view of Carrier Corporation in 1965 shows it riding the crest of the construction wave that swept households and businesses from the cities to the suburbs in the period of rapid economic expansion following World War II. During that year one in every four new houses in the United States was air conditioned, up from one in nine just five years earlier, boosting total domestic home air conditioner sales to a record $1.2 billion. Commercial air conditioning represented a $1.15 billion market in 1965, with one new industrial plant in three being HVAC equipped. Even schools had become potential customers for systems that were now capable of cooling, heating, controlling humidity, eliminating dust, and reducing noise. Carrier Corporation, number one in this burgeoning U.S. air conditioning market in the mid-1960s, reported a jump in sales in fiscal year 1964 to $325 million, up 9 percent, as well as a 22 percent increase in new orders and a 58 percent increase in profits during the first quarter of 1965. Exports, particularly to reverse-season continents such as Australia and South America, had helped make air conditioning a year-round enterprise by the 1960s, fueling the growth of all the firms offering HVAC products. Moreover, Carrier Corporation had landed several large, high-profile air conditioning projects, including the Houston Astrodome, the 19-building complex to house New York State's governmental offices in Albany, and the new London headquarters of Scotland Yard.

Takeover by United Technologies: 1979

In the following decade, however, the U.S. growth curve began heading downward, bringing slower activity in the industrial and construction sectors that were so vital to Carrier Corporation's health. In the aftermath of UTC's hostile takeover of the company--a protracted and bitter struggle that finally ended with Carrier's becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of UTC on July 6, 1979--the decade of the 1980s saw Carrier Corporation in a deteriorating competitive position: it lagged well behind the other companies in the industry in new product development, its costs were as much as 10 percent higher than the competition's, and it had developed a reputation among dealers for poor quality and service. These problems were compounded by a shrinking U.S. market for air conditioning and heating equipment as new home sales dropped 10.1 percent between 1989 and 1990 alone and the overbuilt office and commercial real estate markets depressed demand for Carrier's products by as much as 30 percent.

After assuming the chairmanship of UTC in 1986, Robert F. Daniell went to work on the Carrier subsidiary as part of his efforts to give the parent company an overhaul. This involved $600 million worth of cost cuts at UTC and the sale of more than $1.5 billion of its assets. By 1990, Daniell had disposed of unrelated Carrier Corporation businesses such as trout farming and dumpsters and eliminated $100 million in overhead. Carrier President William A. Wilson reduced the number of white-collar employees by 30 percent during his six-year tenure, which ended in 1990. He also initiated an updating of Carrier's product line, with the result that in 1990 new or redesigned products represented 75 percent of North American sales. Among the new offerings were a residential furnace designed to cut home energy costs by 45 percent and a home air conditioner featuring a 25 percent reduction in noise. Research and development initiatives included office air conditioning systems to cool the air without releasing the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that deplete the atmosphere's ozone layer, as well as a $100 million investment in a new compressor to be manufactured in a state-of-the-art plant in the United States rather than in Japan, where such components had traditionally been purchased by air conditioner makers. Also in 1990, Carrier moved its corporate headquarters from Syracuse to Hartford, Connecticut, where UTC was based.

Early 1990s Restructuring

In 1992, after a four-year slide and despite downsizings and reorganizations, Carrier Corporation remained a troubled subsidiary and a drag on the parent's performance. Nevertheless, UTC cited the end of a lengthy recession and indications of a turnaround in UTC's overall operations as signs that its decision to hold onto its units, including Carrier, was going to pay off. In early 1992 it unveiled an ambitious restructuring plan in which more than 100 plants were to be closed or merged and 11,000 jobs cut. At the Carrier division, the push to add new products and to reduce both inventories and delivery time to customers meant consolidating and reengineering production processes and installing new technology at its manufacturing sites. In line with the plans of many U.S. corporations in the early 1990s, the goal at Carrier was to maintain current output with fewer workers and less space at lower costs. At a Carrier facility in Indianapolis, where assembly lines were reconfigured and component manufacturing was moved nearby, annual inventory was reduced by $12 million and productivity improved by as much as 20 percent.

As UTC anticipated the world market for HVAC equipment to grow by more than 65 percent, to approximately $40 billion, by the year 2000, with more than half that total market centered in the Asia-Pacific region, the blueprint for Carrier Corporation called for expansion outside slow-growth markets to secure a presence in developing areas globally. Quality and customer-satisfaction initiatives also continued to be emphasized, with the result that quality problems, and the accompanying warranty-claims costs, connected with new installations of the company's main line of home air conditioning compressors had declined by half from 1986 to 1992. To meet its goal of greater responsiveness to changing customer requirements, Carrier was building the add-on and replacement segments of the heating and air conditioning business (both residential and commercial). Research and development was another area in which Carrier was concentrating, spending $100 million on research in 1991 and committing itself to an additional $550 million research and development investment during the five subsequent years. The strategic focus was on such core technologies as compression, electronics and controls, refrigerants (particularly non-ozone-depleting alternatives), air management, heat transfer, and indoor air quality.

By the mid-1990s Carrier's various restructuring efforts were beginning to pay off. Backed by new product introductions, including a line of lighter, more efficient home air conditioners--that line's first major overhaul in a decade--Carrier boosted its revenues from $4.3 billion in 1992 to nearly $5 billion in 1994. The cuts in the workforce and the worldwide system of plants (14 factories having been closed from 1991 to 1995), painful as they had been, reduced overhead by more than 12 percent; operating profits tripled from 1992 to 1995. As a result of the company's aggressive pursuit of business in emerging markets--including making early entries into such countries as India, China, and Vietnam--more than 50 percent of sales occurred outside the United States in 1995, compared to just 10 percent 15 years earlier. Most of the products sold outside the United States were also made at overseas factories, in contrast to the earlier period, which was characterized by export sales of U.S.-made products. By mid-1996, Carrier had 33 companies, 17 joint ventures, 15 factories, more than 6,000 outlets, and thousands of employees in the Far East alone. The company also continued to tout its installations at high-profile buildings around the world. In 1993, for instance, Pope John Paul II dedicated a climate control system for the Sistine Chapel that had been designed by Carrier to protect Michelangelo's frescoes from dust and humidity. In 1994 the company announced that it would begin phasing out the use of CFCs worldwide, well in advance of when this would be required in many markets. Also in 1994 George David succeeded Robert F. Daniell as CEO of UTC, and one year later John R. Lord was named president of Carrier, succeeding William Frago. Lord had joined UTC in 1975, later held executive positions at Carrier and at UTC's Otis Elevator Company, Inc. subsidiary, and in 1992 was named president of Carrier's North American operations.

Acquisitions and Further Restructuring Efforts in the Late 1990s and Early 2000s

Revenues grew steadily through 2000, reaching $8.43 billion by that year. Part of this growth was fueled by acquisitions, several of which were particularly noteworthy. In August 1999 Carrier paid about $490 million in cash and assumed approximately $230 million in debt for International Comfort Products Corporation (ICP). Based in Nashville, Tennessee, ICP specialized in residential and light commercial HVAC equipment, and its 1998 worldwide revenues totaled $733.5 million. In early 2000 Carrier acquired Electrolux Commercial Refrigeration from AB Electrolux for approximately $145 million. The acquired unit, generator of $300 million in 1998 sales, produced refrigeration equipment for commercial customers within the supermarket, convenience store, food, and beverage markets. Carrier also purchased Specialty Equipment Companies, Inc. in late 2000 for approximately $700 million in cash and assumed debt. Aurora, Illinois-based Specialty Equipment manufactured refrigeration equipment, soft-serve ice cream and frozen dessert dispensers, and commercial cooking and holding equipment for the fast-food, convenience store, specialty chain, soft-drink, brewery, and institutional foodservice markets. Specialty's revenues for fiscal 2000 exceeded $500 million.

Carrier also formed a joint venture with Toshiba Corporation in 1999. The new Toshiba Carrier Corporation, based in Japan, represented a merger of Toshiba's air conditioning equipment division, which had annual sales of $1.1 billion, with Carrier's Japanese subsidiary, Toyo Carrier, which had about $200 million in yearly revenues. Carrier and Toshiba Carrier also formed manufacturing joint ventures in the United Kingdom and Thailand. Also at the beginning of 2000, Lord retired from the company and was replaced by Jonathan W. Ayers, who had been president of Carrier's Asian-Pacific operations since 1997.

The economic downturn of the early 2000s hit Carrier hard as sales of air conditioning and heating systems were dampened. Although the company's profitability was improving, other UTC units were doing much better, prompting David to replace Ayers with Geraud Darnis in October 2001. Darnis, a Frenchman, had served in a number of financial and management positions at Carrier before becoming president of Asian-Pacific operations in 1999 and then being named head of UTC's power group in early 2001. Continuing its cost-cutting efforts, Carrier announced the closure of its heating and air conditioning plant in Lewisburg, Tennessee, in March 2002. Then in October 2003 the firm revealed plans to close down its air conditioning and refrigeration manufacturing plant located just outside of Syracuse and shift the production to plants in China and Singapore--ending 66 years of Carrier manufacturing in the Syracuse area. The company planned to leave behind a reduced workforce of 1,600 people employed in marketing, sales, product support, warehousing, engineering, and research. Between 2001 and 2003, these and other bottom-line-oriented initiatives yielded results: operating profits jumped 54 percent, from $590 million to $911 million. During the same period, revenues were relatively stagnant, increasing only 4 percent, from $8.9 billion to $9.25 billion.

Carrier continued along a similar path in 2004. A commercial air conditioning and ventilation products plant in McMinnville, Tennessee, was closed. In October Carrier acquired Linde Refrigeration, a division of the German firm Linde AG for approximately EUR 325 million ($390 million). Based in Cologne, Germany, Linde Refrigeration was a leader in commercial refrigeration in Europe, with annual sales of about EUR 866 million ($1 billion), and had manufacturing facilities and sales networks throughout Europe, Asia, and South America. In December 2004 Toshiba Carrier acquired a 20 percent interest in the air conditioning division of Guangdong Midea Electric Appliances Co., Ltd. Midea Air Conditioning, with sales of $1.2 billion, was the second largest producer of air conditioning systems in China and held positions in both the residential and light commercial markets. This marked Carrier's first penetration of the residential air conditioning sector in the fast-growing Chinese market.

Principal Subsidiaries: Carrier Air Conditioning Pty. Limited (Australia); Carrier Aircon Limited (India); Carrier China Limited (Hong Kong); Carrier Commercial Refrigeration, Inc.; Carrier Espana, SL (Spain); Carrier HVACR Investments B.V. (Netherlands); Carrier LG Limited (South Korea); Carrier Ltd. (South Korea); Carrier Mexico S.A. de C.V.; Carrier Nederland BV (Netherlands); Carrier Sales and Distribution, LLC; Carrier SAS (France); Carrier SpA (Italy); Carrier Singapore (PTE) Limited; Carrier Transicold Europe S.A.S. (France); International Comfort Products, LLC; Misr Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Manufacturing Company S.A.E. (Egypt).

Principal Competitors: American Standard Companies Inc.; York International Corporation; Lennox International Inc.; Daikin Industries, Ltd.; Paloma Industries, Limited.

Further Reading:

  • Brady, Diane, "The Unsung CEO," Business Week, October 25, 2004, pp. 74+.
  • Davis, Dan, "Better to Be First," Appliance, October 1996, pp. PC6+.
  • Duffy, Gordon D., "A Leaner Carrier Eyes Global Expansion," Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, May 4, 1987, pp. 3+.
  • Gustaitis, Joseph, "The Man Who Cooled America," American History, August 1994, pp. 62+.
  • Hannagan, Charley, "Carrier Closing Manufacturing: DeWitt Factories Will Lose 1,200 Jobs," Syracuse (N.Y.) Post-Standard/Herald-Journal, October 7, 2003, p. A1.
  • ------, "Hot and Cold: United Technologies, Carrier Corp.'s Parent, Tries to Overcome Downturn," Syracuse (N.Y.) Post-Standard, July 16, 2001, p. 11.
  • Hannagan, Charley, and Rick Moriarty, "End Is Near, Union Told," Syracuse (N.Y.) Post-Standard, May 12, 1998, p. A1.
  • Ingels, Margaret, Willis Haviland Carrier: Father of Air Conditioning, New York, Country Life Press, 1952.
  • Ivins, Molly, "King of Cool: Willis Carrier," Time, December 7, 1998, p. 109.
  • Jancsurak, Joe, "Quest for Global Comfort: When It Comes to HVAC, No One Company Does More Business Outside North America, or Spends More on R&D, Than Carrier," Appliance Manufacturer, August 1998, pp. C7+.
  • Johnson, Wayne, "Carrier Says Cutbacks Will Help It Compete," Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, January 27, 1992, pp. 3+.
  • Mader, Robert P., "Carrier Corp. Buys ICP," Contractor, August 1999, pp. 3+.
  • Naj, Amal Kumar, "United Technologies Navigates a Turnaround Course," Wall Street Journal, April 7, 1992.
  • "New Toshiba Carrier Corp. Looks for Global Expansion," Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, September 7, 1998, p. 1.
  • Smart, Tim, "UTC Gets a Lift from Its Smaller Engines," Business Week, December 20, 1993, pp. 109-10.
  • "UTC Streamlines with Retirement, Job Cuts," Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, July 26, 1999, p. 1.
  • Vogel, Todd, "Can Carrier Corp. Turn Up the Juice?" Business Week, September 3, 1990.
  • Wampler, Cloud, Dr. Willis H. Carrier, Father of Air Conditioning, New York: Newcomen Society of England, American Branch, 1949, 32 p.
  • "Warm News at Carrier," Time, March 5, 1965.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.69. St. James Press, 2005.