Dollar Tree Stores, Inc. History
Chesapeake, Virginia 23320
Telephone: (757) 321-5000
Fax: (757) 321-5111
Incorporated: 1986 as Only One Dollar, Inc.
Sales: $2.32 billion (2002)
Stock Exchanges: NASDAQ
Ticker Symbol: DLTR
NAIC: 452990 All Other General Merchandise Stores
While we are committed to innovation and improvement, certain things never change. Our emphasis on merchandise quality remains paramount.
- J. Douglas Perry, Macon F. Brock, Jr., and H. Ray Compton establish Only One Dollar Inc.
- The three men sell K&K Toys in order to focus their full attention on the discount operation.
- The company changes its name to Dollar Tree Stores, Inc.; Brock, Jr. is named CEO.
- Dollar Tree goes public.
- Dollar Bills Inc. is acquired.
- The company adds California-based 98 Cent Clearance Centers to its arsenal.
- Expansion continues with the purchase of Dollar Express Inc.
- Greenbacks Inc. is acquired.
Dollar Tree Stores, Inc. is a leading discount variety store in the United States. With their merchandise priced at one dollar, the company's stores offer a wide assortment of general goods, including food, toys, housewares, cleaning supplies, health and beauty aids, hardware, books, stationery, paper products, and other consumer items. As of January 2004, Dollar Tree operated over 2,500 stores in 47 states. The company is able to offer its customers a wide variety of products for just one dollar because of its purchasing power--the company buys products in huge quantities. It also imports nearly 40 percent of its merchandise, purchases manufacturers' over-runs, and maintains a strong focus on controlling costs.
From Toy Store to Dollar Store: 1986-90
The founders of Dollar Tree, Inc. first worked together managing K&K Toys, Inc., building that company from one store to a 136-store toy retailer. In 1986, the three men, J. Douglas Perry, Macon F. Brock, Jr., and H. Ray Compton decided to diversify and established a new company, incorporating it in Virginia as Only One Dollar, Inc. "We had all started out in the variety store business, so it seemed a natural transition for us," Brock told Chain Store Executive with Shopping Center Age. The company opened with five stores in Virginia, Georgia, and Tennessee, and, typical of the dollar format, offered primarily closeout merchandise. Perry became chairman of the new company, Brock served as president, and Compton was executive vice-president and chief financial officer.
While the three men continued to manage K&K Toys, their new business grew to 171 stores over the next five years. In October 1991, they sold the toy chain, then one of the largest mall-based toy retailers in the country, to a subsidiary of Melville Corporation, and turned their full attention to their discount operation.
Changing Inventory and Locations: 1991-92
The company now began implementing two major strategic shifts in its efforts to expand. First, rather than continue to be a purveyor of closeout merchandise, Perry, Brock, Jr., and Compton moved to make their stores the modern equivalent of traditional variety stores, with a wide assortment of basic goods priced at no more than one dollar. To do this, they had to change their purchasing strategies, which had emphasized deals and novelties. Consequently, they started buying directly from foreign manufacturers and worked with manufacturers in the United States to offer customized packaging, a broader selection, and products that were larger. Management's aim was to "exceed its customers' expectations of the range and quality of products that can be purchased for $1.00" and to offer at that price items that other stores usually sold for more.
To underscore that value, they inaugurated a second change--the location of their stores. Until then, most of the stores were in enclosed malls, since that was what management knew from its operations of K&K Toys. Now they concentrated on opening stores in strip centers anchored by a large grocery store or a mass merchandiser such as Kmart, Target, or Wal-Mart that it could undersell. That strategy not only helped customers compare prices, it also saved the company money, because strip centers generally charged less rent and tended to generate higher operating margins than mall locations. By the end of 1992, the company had 256 stores. Net sales for the year grew by over 70 percent from $71.1 million to $120.5 million, with net income of $10.8 million.
A New Name and Continued Growth: 1993-95
During 1993, Macon Brock, Jr., was named CEO, the company changed its name to Dollar Tree Stores, Inc., and Dollar Tree continued its expansion, gaining a net 72 new stores, all of which were located in strip shopping centers. Because management believed their stores had a relatively small shopping radius, they were able to open several locations in a single market without having the outlets compete with each other for customers. Most of the stores were located in mid-sized cities and small towns; the rest operated in major metropolitan areas. New stores historically were profitable within their first year of operation and that fact reinforced the company's expansion plans of opening new stores rather than growing through acquisition or merger.
The typical store was approximately 3,200 square feet, with 85 to 90 percent of that area devoted to selling space. Unlike many of its dollar competitors, Dollar Tree paid a lot of attention to the design of its stores and the physical presentation of its merchandise. The chain used the same layout plan in each of its stores, with merchandise organized by category and displayed in densely stocked bins and shelves. Carpeting, bright lighting, background music, and the use of vibrant colors such as red checkout stands made the stores attractive and comfortable. With an average purchase of $6.50 per customer, the chain did not accept credit cards, nor did it scan purchases at checkout. "We locate our stores where people are already shopping, hoping they will be curious enough to check us out," Brock explained to Chain Store Executive with Shopping Center Age. "And then we try and make the outlets as easy as possible for customers to get in and out of."
By the end of 1993, the chain had 328 locations, sales of $167.8 million, and net income of $9.5 million. The drop in income was due to $4 million in costs associated with a recapitalization. As part of the recapitalization, the founders and their spouses sold 50 percent of the outstanding stock to The SK Equity Fund, L.P. and four associates for a total of $23.6 million.
The company continued its successful formula in 1994, expanding to 409 stores, with sales topping the $200 million mark for the first time to reach $231.6 million. One of the key factors in the company's operations was its distribution system. Sharing space (186,000 square feet) at the Norfolk headquarters was one of the company's two distribution centers; the other, with 244,000 square feet, was located in Memphis, Tennessee. This capacity allowed the company to buy large quantities at good prices and to receive early shipment discounts, thus keeping prices within its one dollar range. Given the relatively small size of most of the stores, backup inventories were kept at the distribution centers, with stores receiving weekly shipments of merchandise from the centers. During the busy Christmas season, the company could make two weekly deliveries to high-volume stores.
The company began the year 1995 with the creation of two subsidiaries, Dollar Tree Management, Inc. and Dollar Tree Distribution, Inc. In March, management took Dollar Tree public, and during the year the company opened its 500th store. Sales topped $300 million, with per share earnings of 76 cents.
Acquisition of Dollar Bills, Inc.: 1996
In January 1996, the company bought Dollar Bills, Inc. for approximately $52.6 million in cash and $2 million in inventory. The purchase moved the company into three new states (Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and added 136 stores, increasing Dollar Tree's store base by 27 percent. A modern 250,000-square-foot distribution center and a wholesale division in the Chicago area completed the acquisition.
Most of the Dollar Bills stores were concentrated in urban areas, a different retail market than the existing Dollar Tree stores. The new additions were also typically larger (4,000 to 4,500 square feet), had higher average sales, and carried less inventory per square foot. They also had a higher proportion of low-margin items such as food, health and beauty aids, and household supplies. According to the company's 1996 annual report, the acquisition "taught us about urban marketing, intensified our commitment to variety merchandise, and showed us new ideas in warehousing and distribution." By the end of the year, the new acquisitions had been successfully integrated into the company. To help make sure that all locations followed the same operational procedures, the company instituted a new training program, "Dollar Tree University," at corporate headquarters.
In April 1996, the company initiated a stock dividend, with the effect of a 3-for-2 stock split, and in June it made a second stock offering to the public. While Asia continued to be the company's largest source of imported goods, the company added sources from Italy, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico to its list of vendors. Imports made up over one-third of Dollar Tree's merchandise and around 40 percent of its sales. Closeout merchandise, which had been the company's initial concept, now made up less than 15 percent of its offerings.
In evaluating the overall merchandise mix, the company added more higher-margin inventory such as toys and gifts to the items available at the Dollar Bills locations and more consumable products on the shelves of the Dollar Tree stores. The integration was accomplished with little disruption to either the company's opening of 104 new Dollar Tree stores or the operations of the individual stores. Over 90 percent of the Dollar Tree stores that were opened the entire year had operating income profits of more than 15 percent, as did over 85 percent of the Dollar Bills stores. The company ended 1996 with 737 stores and sales up more than 64 percent, to $493 million. About half the increase was attributable to the Dollar Bills operations.
The mid-1990s were a tough period for many of Dollar Tree's competitors. Several, including Jamesway Corporation, Ben Franklin Retail Stores, 50-Off Stores, and Solo Serve Corporation were no longer publicly traded by the end of 1996. Others closed many of their stores or abandoned the dollar concept.
Late 1990s and Beyond
In January 1997, Dollar Tree began construction, at an estimated cost of $34 million, of its Store Support Center in Chesapeake, Virginia, ten miles from its Norfolk location. In April, Dollar Tree issued $30 million in unsecured notes to pay off some of its existing revolving credit facility so that the credit could be used to fund capital expenditures for the Store Support Center. In June, the founders, SK Equity Fund, and other shareholders offered four million shares of Dollar Tree stock for sale. While the company itself did not receive any of the proceeds of that sale, in July it issued a three-for-two stock split.
During 1997, the company continued to grow according to its expansion play, opening a net 150 new stores and reaching 887 locations. Many of the new locations fit the company's larger prototype for future Dollar Tree stores, which increased store space to between 3,500 and 4,000 square feet. The company hoped that by creating larger aisles, with more space for recently added shopping carts, customers would buy more. Net sales for the year rose nearly 29 percent to $635.5 million, with sales at stores open for a year up more than 7 percent. Net earnings increased from $33.8 million in 1996 to $48.6 million. This performance occurred as one of the company's variety store competitors, Woolworth's, closed its stores in the United States.
Staff moved into the new corporate headquarters at the Store Support Center before the year ended, and the new, automated distribution center began operating in January 1998. With an automated conveyor and sorting system, the new facility had the capacity to support up to 800 stores. Dollar Tree president and CEO Macon Brock, Jr., announced that the company was in the process of buying land in Olive Branch, Mississippi, for another distribution center to replace the nearby Memphis facility. The Olive Branch center, some 425,000 square feet in size, began operation in early 1999--the same year the company surpassed $1 billion in sales.
In March 1998, certain shareholders, including Brock and the other founders, along with SK Equity Fund, filed to sell 4.5 million shares of Dollar Tree stock. "There's nothing wrong with the dollar-store concept," Brock told Chain Store Executive with Shopping Center Age. "But the way you execute it can mean the difference between success and failure." By concentrating on finding a wide variety of merchandise it could sell for one dollar, by making its stores exciting and attractive, by closely watching costs, and by locating its stores in centers where their customers were already shopping, Dollar Tree obviously had found its niche. As Brock summed it up, "The failure of the traditional variety store, as seen in the recent closing of Woolworth's, and the dominance of the big-box retailers have left a huge gap that we can fill."
Indeed, Dollar Tree continued to strengthen its foothold in the industry through a series of strategic acquisitions it made in the late 1990s and in the early years of the new century. In 1998, the company purchased 98 Cents Clearance Centers, a California-based chain owned by Step Ahead Investments Inc. As a result, the firm expanded into California and Nevada that year, as well as moving into markets in Oklahoma, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. In 2000, Dollar Tree set its sights on Dollar Express Inc. The $306.8 million deal added over 100 stores in six mid-Atlantic states to the company's arsenal, bringing its total store count to 1,729 units by year-end. Perhaps its most important purchase however, was that of Greenbacks Inc. in 2003. The acquisition gave Dollar Tree a presence in Colorado, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, effectively positioning it as the first dollar store chain with a national reach.
While the company focused on growing both organically and through acquisition, it also made technology a cornerstone in its expansion platform. In 1999, the firm automated its distribution center in Chesapeake, Virginia, in order to simplify its supply chain flow operations. In 2001, Dollar Tree began implementing a point-of-sale (POS) scanning system in its stores, which allowed for better inventory control. By 2003, nearly 1,500 were utilizing POS systems.
To keep pace with its impressive growth, Dollar Tree opened additional distribution facilities with automation capabilities during this time period. In 2000, a facility went online in Stockton, California. Two additional warehouses were opened in Georgia and Pennsylvania the following year, while Oklahoma became home to yet another facility in 2003.
Dollar Tree broke the $2 billion mark in 2002 as sales and net income continued their upward trend. Bob Sasser took over as CEO in January 2004 while Brock continued on as chairman. An October 2003 DSN Retailing Today article commented on the management shift, reporting, "The change in leadership at Dollar Tree aligns with the way the company itself has matured and realized the importance of becoming a sophisticated retailer." Indeed, Dollar Tree's actions during the late 1990s and into the new century left it in an enviable position among its competitors. With an emphasis on increasing store size and utilizing cutting-edge technology to simplify operations, control cost, and maintain merchandise quality, the company appeared to be well positioned for growth well into the future.
Principal Subsidiaries: Dollar Tree Distribution Inc.; Dollar Tree Management, Inc.
Principal Competitors: 99 Cents Only Stores; Dollar General Corporation; Family Dollar Stores, Inc.
- "Automation Takes Root at Dollar Tree," Transportation & Distribution, February 1999.
- Desjardins, Doug, "Dollar Stores Outpace Industry by Pursuing New Market Penetration," DSN Retailing Today, September 17, 2001, p. 7.
- "Dollar Tree Launches Operations at New Distribution Center," Business Wire, January 15, 1998.
- "Dollar Tree Stores: Dollars and Sense," Forbes, January 8, 2001, p. 152.
- "Dollar Tree Stores Inc.: Purchase of Dollar Express Closes in $306.8 Million Deal," Wall Street Journal, May 8, 2000, p. 1.
- "Dollar Tree Stores, Inc. Reports Earnings Per Share of $1.13 for 1997," Business Wire, January 22, 1998.
- Halverson, Richard, "Dollar Tree Opens 1,000th Store, Acquires 98 Cents Clearance Centers," Discount Store News, August 24, 1998, p. 3.
- Howell, Debbie, "Dollar Tree to Toe $1 Billion Mark Following Store Expansion," Discount Store News, June 21, 1999, p. 2.
- ------, "Five-and-Dime Stores May Be Dead, but Dollar Tree Keeps on Growing," DSN Retailing Today, December 16 2002, p. 2.
- ------, "Dollar Tree to Acquire Greenbacks," DSN Retailing Today, June 9, 2003, p. 5.
- ------, "New Dollar Tree CEO Stresses Technology," DSN Retailing Today, October 27, 2003, p. 8.
- "Racking up Profit at Dollar Tree Stores," Chain Store Age Executive with Shopping Center Age, November 1997, p. 54.
Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.62. St. James Press, 2004.