The Procter & Gamble Company History

Address:
One Procter & Gamble Plaza
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202-3315
U.S.A.

Telephone: (513) 983-1100
Fax: (513) 983-9369

Website:
Public Company
Incorporated: 1890
Employees: 110,000
Sales: $51.41 billion (2004)
Stock Exchanges: New York National (NSX) Amsterdam Paris Basel Geneva Lausanne Zürich Frankfurt Brussels
Ticker Symbol: PG
NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing; 311919 Other Snack Food Manufacturing; 311920 Coffee and Tea Manufacturing; 322291 Sanitary Paper Product Manufacturing; 325412 Pharmaceutical Preparation Manufacturing; 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing; 325612 Polish and Other Sanitation Good Manufacturing; 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing; 339994 Broom, Brush, and Mop Manufacturing

Company Perspectives:

We will provide branded products and services of superior quality and value that improve the lives of the world's consumers. As a result, consumers will reward us with leadership sales, profit, and value creation, allowing our people, our shareholders, and the communities in which we live and work to prosper.

Key Dates:

1837:
William Procter and James Gamble form Procter & Gamble, a partnership in Cincinnati, Ohio, to manufacture and sell candles and soap.

c.
1851:
Company's famous moon-and-stars symbol is created.
1878:
P&G introduces White Soap, soon renamed Ivory.
1890:
The Procter & Gamble Company is incorporated.
1911:
Crisco, the first all-vegetable shortening, debuts.
1931:
Brand management system is formally introduced.
1946:
P&G introduces Tide laundry detergent.
1955:
Crest toothpaste makes its debut.
1957:
Charmin Paper Company is acquired.
1961:
Test marketing of Pampers disposable diapers begins.
1963:
Company acquires the Folgers coffee brand.
1982:
Norwich-Eaton Pharmaceuticals is acquired.
1985:
P&G purchases Richardson-Vicks Company, owner of the Vicks, NyQuil, and Oil of Olay brands.
1988:
Noxell Corporation, maker of Noxema products and Cover Girl cosmetics, is acquired.
1991:
Max Factor and Betrix cosmetic and fragrance lines are bought from Revlon, Inc.
1992:
Pantene Pro-V shampoo is introduced.
1993:
Major restructuring is launched, involving 13,000 job cuts and 30 plant closures.
1997:
Company acquires Tambrands, Inc., maker of the Tampax line of tampons.
1998:
Organization 2005 restructuring is launched.
1999:
Premium pet food maker Iams Company is purchased.
2001:
P&G acquires the Clairol hair-care business from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
2002:
Jif peanut butter and Crisco shortening brands are divested.
2003:
Company acquires a controlling interest in German hair-care firm Wella AG.

Company History:

Further Reading:

  • Berner, Robert, "Why P&G's Smile Is So Bright," Business Week, August 12, 2002, pp. 58-60.
  • Berner, Robert, and Gerry Khermouch, "The Tide Is Turning at P&G," Business Week, April 8, 2002, p. 44.
  • Berner, Robert, Nanette Byrnes, and Wendy Zellner, "P&G Has Rivals in a Wringer," Business Week, October 4, 2004, p. 74.
  • Branch, Shelly, "P&G to Buy Iams," Wall Street Journal, August 12, 1999, p. B1.
  • Brooker, Katrina, "Can Procter & Gamble Change Its Culture, Protect Its Market Share, and Find the Next Tide?," Fortune, April 26, 1999, pp. 146-50, 152.
  • ------, "The Un-CEO," Fortune, September 16, 2002, pp. 88-92, 96.
  • Canedy, Dana, "A Prescription to Keep P&G Growing Strong: Big Household Name Tries to Be a Drugstore, Too," New York Times, November 4, 1997, p. D1.
  • Deogun, Nikhil, and Emily Nelson, "Stirring Giant: P&G Is on the Move," Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2000, pp. A1+.
  • Dumaine, Brian, "P&G Rewrites the Marketing Rules," Fortune, November 6, 1989, pp. 34+.
  • Dyer, Davis, Frederick Dalzell, and Rowena Olegario, Rising Tide: Lessons from 165 Years of Brand Building at Procter & Gamble, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004, 496 p.
  • Eisenberg, Daniel, "A Healthy Gamble," Time, September 16, 2002, pp. 46-48.
  • Ellison, Sarah, "P&G Lays Out Wella Strategy," Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2003, p. B3.
  • Galuszka, Peter, and Ellen Neuborne, "P&G's Hottest New Product: P&G," Business Week, October 5, 1998, pp. 92+.
  • Henkoff, Ronald, "P&G: New and Improved!," Fortune, October 14, 1996, pp. 151+.
  • "The House That Ivory Built: 150 Years of Procter & Gamble," Advertising Age, August 20, 1987.
  • "Jager's Gamble," Economist, October 30, 1999, p. 75.
  • Johnson, Bradley, "Retailers Accepting P&G Low Pricing," Advertising Age, June 22, 1992, p. 36.
  • Kirk, Jim, "The New Status Symbols; New Values Drive Private-Label Sales," Adweek (Eastern Ed.), October 5, 1992, pp. 38-44.
  • Laing, Jonathan R., "New and Improved: Procter & Gamble Fights to Keep Its Place on the Top Shelf," Barron's, November 29, 1993, pp. 8-9, 22, 24, 26.
  • Lawrence, Jennifer, "Jager: New P&G Pricing Builds Brands," Advertising Age, June 29, 1992, pp. 13, 49.
  • ------, "Laundry Soap Marketers See the Value of 'Value!,'" Advertising Age, September 21, 1992, pp. 3, 56.
  • Lenzner, Robert, and Carrie Shook, "The Battle of the Bottoms," Forbes, March 24, 1997, pp. 98+.
  • Levin, Gary, "P&G Tells Shops: Direct Marketing Is Important to Us," Advertising Age, June 22, 1992, pp. 3, 35.
  • Lief, Alfred, It Floats: The Story of Procter & Gamble, New York: Rinehart & Company, 1958, 338 p.
  • Miller, Cyndee, "Moves by P&G, Heinz Rekindle Fears That Brands Are in Danger," Marketing News, June 8, 1992, pp. 1, 15.
  • Mitchell, Alan, "The Dawn of a Cultural Revolution," Management Today, March 1998, pp. 42-44, 46, 48.
  • Nelson, Emily, "P&G Agrees to Pay $4.95 Billion for Bristol-Myers's Clairol Unit," Wall Street Journal, May 22, 2001, p. B7.
  • ------, "Rallying the Troops at P&G: New CEO Lafley Aims to End Upheaval by Revamping Program of Globalization," Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2000, p. B1.
  • P&G: A Company History, Cincinnati, Ohio: The Procter & Gamble Company, 2004, 17 p.
  • "P&G's New New-Product Onslaught," Business Week, October 1, 1979, p. 76.
  • Parker-Pope, Tara, "New CEO Preaches Rebellion for P&G's 'Cult,'" Wall Street Journal, December 11, 1998, p. B1.
  • ------, "P&G, in Effort to Give Sales a Boost, Plans to Revamp Corporate Structure," Wall Street Journal, September 2, 1998, p. B6.
  • ------, "P&G Targets Textiles Tide Can't Clean," Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1998, pp. B1, B4.
  • Parker-Pope, Tara, and Joann S. Lublin, "P&G Will Make Jager CEO Ahead of Schedule," Wall Street Journal, September 10, 1998, pp. B1, B8.
  • Parker-Pope, Tara, and Jonathan Friedland, "P&G Calls the Cops As It Strives to Expand Sales in Latin America," Wall Street Journal, March 20, 1998, pp. A1, A9.
  • Procter & Gamble: The House That Ivory Built, by the editors of Advertising Age, Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Business Books, 1988, 234 p.
  • "Procter & Gamble's Profit Problem-Food," Business Week, January 26, 1981, p. 52.
  • "Procter's Gamble," Economist, July 25, 1992, pp. 61-62.
  • Rice, Faye, "The King of Suds Reigns Again," Fortune, August 4, 1986, pp. 130+.
  • Saporito, Bill, "Behind the Tumult at P&G," Fortune, March 7, 1994, pp. 74+.
  • ------, "Procter & Gamble's Comeback Plan," Fortune, February 4, 1985, pp. 30+.
  • Schiller, Zachary, "And Now, a Show from Your Sponsor," Business Week, May 22, 1995, pp. 100+.
  • ------, "Ed Artzt's Elbow Grease Has P&G Shining," Business Week, October 10, 1994, pp. 84+.
  • ------, "Make It Simple," Business Week, September 9, 1996, pp. 96+.
  • ------, "The Marketing Revolution at Procter & Gamble," Business Week, July 25, 1988, pp. 72+.
  • ------, "No More Mr. Nice Guy at P&G--Not by a Long Shot," Business Week, February 3, 1992, pp. 54+.
  • ------, "P&G's Worldly New Boss Wants a More Worldly Company," Business Week, October 30, 1989, pp. 40+.
  • ------, "Procter & Gamble Hits Back: Its Dramatic Overhaul Takes Aim at High Costs--and Low-Price Rivals," Business Week, July 19, 1993, pp. 20+.
  • Schisgall, Oscar, Eyes on Tomorrow: Evolution of Procter & Gamble, Chicago: J.G. Ferguson Publishing Co., 1981, 295 p.
  • Sellers, Patricia, "P&G: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks," Fortune, May 31, 2004, pp. 166-68+.
  • Swasy, Alecia, Soap Opera: The Inside Story of Procter & Gamble, New York: Times Books, 1993, 378 p.
  • Vanderwicken, Peter, "P&G's Secret Ingredient," Fortune, July 1974, p. 75.
  • Weinstein, Steve, "Will Procter's Gamble Work?," Progressive Grocer, July 1992, pp. 36-40.
  • "Why Procter & Gamble Is Playing It Even Tougher," Business Week, July 18, 1983, pp. 176+.
  • Wilsher, Peter, "Diverse and Perverse," Management Today, July 1992, pp. 32-35.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.67. St. James Press, 2005.