Zebra Technologies Corporation History
Vernon Hills, Illinois 60061-3109
Telephone: (847) 634-6700
Toll Free: 800-423-0422
Fax: (847) 913-8766
Incorporated: 1969 as Data Specialties Inc.
Sales: $450 million (2001)
Stock Exchanges: NASDAQ
Ticker Symbol: ZBRA
NAIC: 333293 Printing Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing; 334418 Printed Circuit Assembly (Electronic Assembly) Manufacturing; 334613 Magnetic and Optical Recording Media Manufacturing; 334119 Other Computer Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing
Over years of innovation, Zebra Technologies has achieved a clear view of the entire industrial supply chain and how it can add value at each link. At Zebra, we strive to enable our customers to achieve their business goals more quickly, more safely, more accurately, and more efficiently.
- Edward L. Kaplan and Gerhard Cless establish Data Specialties Inc.
- The firm introduces The Zebra, its first bar code printer.
- The company changes its name to Zebra Technologies Corp.
- Zebra goes public.
- The firm purchases Vertical Technologies Inc.
- The firm merges with Eltron International Inc.
- Comtec Information Systems is acquired.
The mysterious series of lines and numbers called bar coding has provided a thumbprint of products since the 1970s, conveying instant information on model, price, weight, and dozens of other product characteristics. As a manufacturer and international distributor of bar code and automatic identification labeling, Zebra Technologies Corporation develops and builds thermal bar code label and receipt printers, card printers, radio frequency identification smart label printers and encoders, and a variety of related supplies. The company caters to a wide variety of industries including consumer goods, manufacturing, automotive, healthcare, electronics, and warehousing and distribution. In 2002, Zebra was named one of Forbes magazine's "200 Best Small Companies in America."
A Shaky Start: 1969
In 1969 engineers Edward L. Kaplan and Gerhard Cless contributed $500 each to found Data Specialties Inc., a manufacturer of high-speed electromechanical products such as hole-punching and tape-reading machines. Kaplan had graduated with honors from the Illinois Institute of Technology and received a prestigious National Defense Education Act fellowship (which he relinquished after deciding not to earn a Ph.D.), while Cless had attended the University of Esslingen in Germany, where his mechanical engineering skills had earned him ten patents. While employed full-time as project engineers at Teletype Corp., they began to design machinery after hours.
After a client expressed interest in their work, they pooled their savings and came up with two punch machine prototypes using paper tape. Receiving an order for 500, Kaplan and Cless borrowed $20,000 to produce the machines and worked nights in a Chicago loft to complete the order. Hiring 15 part-time workers to assemble parts during the day and on weekends, Kaplan and Cless then received a second, multimillion-dollar order for 2,000 machines from a client in the banking industry in response to an ad they had placed in a Florida trade publication.
Thrilled, Kaplan and Cless quit their day jobs and pushed hard to complete the initial order--of which only a fraction were finished and paid for. As the remainder of the machines awaited assembly, the client suddenly canceled. Kaplan and Cless then concentrated on designing machines for the second contract, creating a revolutionary punch machine that could print passbook and bookkeeping entries as well as customer receipts, all at the same time. They later discovered, however, that the client wanted only the prototypes so it could manufacture the machines on its own; the client then sued the engineers for breach of contract when they would not hand them over. Unable to afford any retaliatory legal action, Kaplan and Cless were forced to relinquish the machines' designs in return for the lawsuit being dropped.
Citing the incident as "devastating but one of those lessons that can't be taught," Kaplan and Cless were left with a loft full of parts for 475 punch machines and no money from their first three months of business. The two hammered out a new $1.5 million business plan to design and produce printing machinery, then set about raising the necessary capital. Able to come up with only $70,000, they hired themselves out as consultants and continued working on a paper punch machine to collect data while attached to other instruments. The partners decided that Kaplan would handle the management, marketing, and money side of Data Specialties' business and Cless the technological aspects. Kaplan then borrowed his father's car for a jaunt to the East Coast to drum up business. After eating and sleeping in the car the entire trip, the partners were almost ready to give up, but decided they would give their venture another two weeks before calling it quits. Within days an order came in from an Ohio-based division of Monsanto Corp., followed by two more orders in the next several weeks.
By the end of 1970, Data Specialties Inc. was located in Highland Park, Illinois, and had reached revenues of $90,000; in 1971 total sales climbed by 360 percent to $330,000. Then Bell and Howell Co. came calling with a major contract, contingent upon inspection of Data Specialties Inc.'s manufacturing plant--which did not exist. Thinking fast, the engineers took apart already-assembled machines and spread them throughout their 1,320-square-foot office space, hired a secretary and workers to reassemble the machines for the day, and enlisted their wives to call every ten minutes impersonating customers. Their creativity and virtual factory paid off, as Bell and Howell and many other clients signed with Data Specialties over the next few years, eventually earning the company a 50 percent share of the paper tape punch and related machinery market.
Focus on Bar Coding: 1980s
When the paper tape industry began to falter due to new technology like bar coding, the partners decided to pursue the latter. Although bar coding had been around since the 1970s, the industry was still in its infancy, with just a handful of competitors. The odd-looking black and white stripes were first favored by grocers using UPC (Universal Product Code) labels as a means of speeding up the check-out and payment process; then bar codes caught on in the retail clothing industry. Data Specialties introduced its first bar code printer, The Zebra, at a Dallas trade show in 1982, and despite some minor glitches, the machine was far more advanced than those of competitors. "It had the capability to create on-demand bar coding," Cless explained, "that could revolutionize the industry." The fledgling company began selling its wares to businesses, especially healthcare and pharmaceutical companies, at home and overseas.
In 1986, to combat scanning problems due to poor resolution from off-shaped or uneven-surfaced products, the company built its first "thermal transfer" printer using heated printer heads that melted characters from a waxy ribbon onto labels made from paper, plastic, foil, or other smooth materials. Unlike standard bar codes, thermal transfer labels were able to withstand temperatures as high as 400 degrees Fahrenheit or as cold as minus 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Although there were other printing processes using heat, thermal transfer did not require specially treated labels, lasted much longer, and soon became an industry standard for affixing labels to items of all shapes and sizes--such as U.S. Steel's strip steel coils and bars and hospitals' blood bags and specimens.
With the success of its Zebra printer and other products, Kaplan and Cless changed the company's name from Data Specialties to Zebra Technologies Corporation in 1986. Over the next few years, the company began transferring its Japanese manufacturing (which began in the early 1980s through a partnership) back to the United States, to maximize profit and decrease product defect rates. While manufacturing in Japan had initially been beneficial, the fall of the dollar by nearly half, government embargoes, and import duty increases had taken their toll on Zebra, and both Kaplan and Cless wanted to regain control of their manufacturing. Yet the years in Japan had given Zebra an important technological edge, which when combined with Cless's German background and their location in the United States, gave the company a valuable international orientation.
Success Leads to an Early 1990s Public Offering
The next year Kaplan and Cless's hard work was recognized when the company was awarded the prestigious 1988 High Technology Entrepreneur Award from Peat Marwick Main & Co., a Chicago-based accounting and consulting firm. Zebra finished the year with $30 million in sales and income of $5.5 million; the following year, 1990, sales jumped nearly 30 percent to $38 million. In 1991 the partners decided to take their company public, and in August 1991 Zebra successfully completed an initial public offering of 2.8 million shares at $15.50 each; within hours, the stock traded at $18. By year's end in 1991 analysts estimated the bar code industry at $380 million with Zebra having captured more than 25 percent of the market. There were more than 23,000 of Zebra's bar code printing systems installed at some 5,000 sites worldwide, pumping the company's net sales up to $45.6 million, including nearly 36 percent from international sources. As Zebra prospered the company increased its funding in R&D proportionately, spending nearly $2.4 million.
By 1992 Zebra was considered the premier manufacturer of high-performance demand printing materials used in factory assembly lines to label a wide variety of consumer goods. With more than 30,000 machines installed worldwide, Zebra's product line of 20 thermal-transfer printing systems and 12 different symbologies had earned a reputation for excellence as well as durability, especially in harsh conditions. As a result, Zebra was ranked number seven on Forbes's "200 Best Small Companies" in November. The company then ended the year with net sales of $58.7 million and earnings of $11.8 million, due in part to its increasing supplies business, which accounted for a quarter of 1992's sales. By the end of that year 90 percent of Zebra's operations were housed at its 67,000-square-foot Vernon Hills facility, which added another 37,000 square feet to accommodate the growth.
In March 1993, Zebra's second public offering of 2.6 million shares (at $22.75 each) went off without a hitch. The company now had 45,000 machines in circulation, and Zebra's engineers began looking in another direction. Although its printers were intricately crafted, high-performance machines (which became known as the trademarked Performance Line), the company continued to research ways to make their printers more technologically advanced, less expensive, and accessible to a wider client base. In general, Zebra's customers were divided into two market segments and two subdivisions--the first between the industrial and retail markets (nearly 90 percent of retailers used bar codes, while only 20 percent of the industrial market had been tapped in 1993), and the second between clients whose primary purpose was compliance with bar-coding standards versus those who used the bar codes for the detailed information the labels could provide about production, including tracking inventory and routing deliveries.
Whereas some clients easily spent more than $10,000 for a sophisticated, custom-made printer (prices ranged from about $1,600 to $12,000), others required as many as a dozen printers and supplies for factory assembly lines. With this in mind, in 1993 Zebra launched its Value-Line of economically priced products, consisting of completely reengineered and redesigned printers and accessories. Although the technology of the entry-level Value-Line was still state-of-the-art, the products themselves were smaller and easier to assemble (with the number of parts reduced by up to 40 percent), lightweight (due to their use of structural plastic), manufactured in up to 25 percent less time, and, consequently, lower-priced by nearly half. When the Stripe S-300 and S-500 were introduced in the fall of 1993, sales were impressive. Yet romancing the mid- to lower-priced market did not affect Zebra's higher-end markets--its specialized Performance Line machines continued to be purchased by its regular clients (which mainly consisted of Fortune 500 companies) and steadily attracted new ones as well.
Continuing Growth in the Mid-1990s
While laser and ink-jet technology became hot topics of discussion in the bar code industry, Zebra's thermal transfer printing continued to reflect record gains: 1993's net sales rose to $87.4 million and income increased to $18.2 million, both well over the 27 percent in sales and 19 percent in profits predicted by analysts. Stock value, too, increased to $23.25 per share, and Zebra raised its R&D spending to $4.6 million to fine-tune its product line still further. Except for a setback in 1994's second quarter after manufacturing slowed due to extreme weather and the California earthquake, Zebra's growth continued unabated--again with record high sales of $107.1 million (up 22.5 percent from 1993), helped in part by the introduction of new products and significantly by an increase of almost 53 percent in international sales (which accounted for about 40 percent of Zebra's total sales). New products included an accessory called the Verifier, which identified unscannable or faulty labels; the STRIPE cutter, which sliced labels as they were printed for immediate application; and several new label surfaces resistant to not only excess heat and cold, but to abrasions, chemicals, light, and moisture.
As the bar code industry saw its best year yet in 1994, due to clients like Kmart, Wal-Mart, and Lowe's, who demanded merchandise with bar coding--the company achieved number one status with its popular and durable Performance Line in the higher-priced market while possessing a healthy 33 percent share (second only to Datamax Corp. with a 40 percent share) in the economy segment. By the end of the first quarter in 1995, Zebra's overseas sales grew by 89 percent as a result of a weakened dollar and increased penetration of markets in the United Kingdom and other countries. Operations in High Wycombe and Preston, England, helped speed delivery to the company's international customers. The High Wycombe facility, completed in 1994, consisted of 17,000 square feet and became Zebra's international headquarters, while the operation in Preston, near Manchester, occupied nearly 20,000 square feet and served as the company's European distribution center. Back in the United States, Zebra built a 50,000-square-foot addition to its manufacturing facility and added another 11,500 square feet to its corporate headquarters in Vernon Hills. As square footage expanded worldwide, the company's workforce approached a new high of 500.
By mid-1995 Zebra's $119.5 in sales had doubled from just three years earlier and the company was ranked number 72 on Business Week's list of "100 Best Small Corporations and Hot Growth Companies" in May. Zebra invested $5.8 million (up 26 percent from 1993) into R&D to explore new possibilities in engineering and design as well as materials and adhesives. The company's internal structure was overhauled after several senior employees left to work for competitors. With very little long-term debt and plenty of cash and marketable securities (estimated at more than $54 million), the increasingly acquisition-minded Kaplan began hinting at diversification when he told Equities Magazine Inc., "We're not married to the thermal transfer printer market." In July 1995, Kaplan and Cless purchased the Utah-based Vertical Technology Industries, a company specializing in bar code software. Kaplan turned day-to-day operations over to new president Jeffrey Clements (former CEO of Miller Fluid Power Corp.) while Cless continued in his role as executive vice-president of engineering and technology.
With distribution in 60 countries throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, the Pacific Rim, and Central, North, and South Americas, Zebra Technologies' bar code printers had produced labels for a myriad of products, including millions of Microsoft's floppy diskettes, Motorola's cellular phone batteries, Philips Consumer Electronics' audio and video components, and even postage stamps and labels in 35 post offices in Taipei. "We have never seen a company that could not benefit from our technology," Kaplan told Fortune in 1993, and he and his partner Cless have been proved right repeatedly since founding their company in 1969.
Acquisitions and Product Expansion: Late 1990s and Beyond
As the new millennium approached, the partners made several key moves to solidify the company's position in the industry. In 1996, the company announced that it would merge with California-based Eltron International Inc., a manufacturer of desktop bar code label and plastic card printers. The deal was completed in 1998, giving Zebra access to both a broader distribution market and additional product development staff. It also positioned Zebra as the leading bar code printer manufacturer, with new customers including United Parcel Service Inc. and FedEx Corp. Sales in 1998 grew to $339.6 million and continued to increase, reaching $481.5 million in 2000.
Zebra's solid financial results left it well positioned to make additional acquisitions. Comtec Information Systems Inc., a portable and mobile printer manufacturer, was the company's next major purchase. Eyeing the portable and wireless printer market for its growth potential, Zebra was quick to add the Rhode Island-based firm to its holdings in April 2000. This deal proved lucrative as a majority of the firm's growth during 2001 stemmed from Comtec's operations.
Zebra continued its growth strategy even as the U.S. economy faltered during 2001. Sales fell for the first time in its history, dropping to $450 million. The firm's planned acquisition of Fargo Electronics also fell through when it was met with opposition by the Federal Trade Commission. Nevertheless, Zebra continued to invest in expansion and product development and looked to penetrate new growth markets, including healthcare and homeland security. The latter was especially important as airports across the globe made security a key priority after the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001. By 2002, more than 50 airports used Zebra products to print secure identification cards and security badges.
As part of its international expansion efforts, the company established a mobile printing business based in Europe during 2001 and planned to aggressively pursue opportunities in Eastern Europe, the Asia Pacific region, and Latin America. Zebra launched its first wireless tabletop printer at this time and focused on its product development related to wireless technology. The company also increased its sales in the postal, banking, and hospitality and travel industries.
Sales picked up during 2002 in both North America and in-ternational regions, and management expected a return to growth. Even with its drop in sales during 2001, Zebra was recognized by both Forbes and Deloitte & Touche for its overall growth and financial strength. The firm also was awarded Business Finance Magazine and Hyperion Solution's "2002 Vision Award," which was based on business performance management. As a well respected industry leader, Zebra's future looked promising.
Principal Competitors: Axiohm Transaction Solutions Inc.; Datamax Corporation; Intermec Technologies Corporation.
- "Bar-Code Firm Will Go Public," Chicago Tribune, July 13, 1991, p. 3.
- "Eltron International and Zebra Technologies to Merge," New York Times, October 17, 1996, p. D4.
- "The Generalist vs. The Specialist: How to Decide Which Printer Is Best for Your Application," Modern Office Technology, February 1992, p. 44.
- Hamilton, Walter, "Zebra Tech Links Success to Entering Key New Markets," Investor's Business Daily, July 14, 1995.
- Jones, Sandra, "Zebra Gets Ready to Earn Its Stripes," Crain's Chicago Business, February 21, 2000, p. 3.
- Koprowski, Gene, "Zebra Technologies Also Targets Small Firms," Crain's Chicago Business, July 22, 1996, p. 9.
- Lyons, Daniel J., "Bar-Code Printers Produce Coded Labels," PC Week, January 6, 1992, pp. 77, 80.
- Maclean, John N., "Weak Earnings Sink Zebra Stock," Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1994, p. 1.
- ------, "Zebra Says Ribbon Woes Are Ending," Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1994, p. 3.
- Marcial, Gene G., "Bar-Coding the World," Business Week, July 31, 1995, p. 71.
- Moskal, Brian S., "Zebra Tames New-Product Development," Industry Week, September 6, 1993, pp. 19-20.
- Murphy, Lee H., "Bar Code Specialist Zebra Hunting for Acquisitions," Crain's Chicago Business, May 28, 2001, p. 30.
- O'Maolchoin, Sean, "Zebra Finds Its Stripes in Bar Codes," Equities Magazine Inc., April 1995.
- Palmer, Ann Therese, "Different Stripes," Chicago Tribune, January 3, 1993, pp. 1, 6, 7.
- ------, "Zebra Looks to Management Revamp to Help Bolster Growth," Crain's Chicago Business, March 6, 1995, p. 42.
- ------, "Zebra Strategies Anything But Tame," Chicago Tribune, April 13, 1992, pp. 1, 6.
- Rae, Sriknmar S., "Tomorrow's Rosetta Stones," FW, November 22, 1994, pp. 70-72.
- Ringer, Richard, "Market Place: Zebra Technologies Finds a Downside in Its Prosperity," New York Times, August 2, 1993, p. C4.
- Sherrod, Pamela, "4 High-Tech Innovators Honored," Chicago Tribune, November 21, 1988, p. B1.
- Sietz, Patrick, "Zebra Tech Stands Out in Jungle," Investor's Business Daily, November 25, 2002.
- Teitelbaum, Richard S., "Companies to Watch: Zebra Technologies," Fortune, January 25, 1993, p. 105.
- "Zebra Acquires Eltron," Transportation & Distribution, August 1998, p. 16.
- Zipser, Andy, "Where Stripes Are," Barron's, January 20, 1992, pp. 42-43.
Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 53. St. James Press, 2003.